Publications

 

BSC Publications Committee
The BSC produces a number of publications including the BSC Newsletter and the online journal "Papers from the British Criminology Conference". The BSC also has its own journal "Criminology and Criminal Justice" which is published through SAGE and is currently under the management of an editorial team from Leeds, led by Adam Crawford. The role of the Publications Committee is to consider progress with these various publications and to discuss new ideas. The members of the Committee are as follows:
Chair: Andrew Millie (Edge Hill University)
Andrew Millie is Professor of Criminology in the Department of Law and Criminology at Edge Hill University.
His research interests are primarily in the areas of anti-social behaviour, policing and theoretical and philosophical criminology. Andrew can be contacted at andrew.millie@edgehill.ac.uk.
 
Karen Bullock (University of Surrey)
Dr Bullock is a Lecturer in criminology at the University of Surrey. Her research interests focus on policing and crime reduction.
 
Nic Groombridge (St Mary's University College)
Nic Groombridge teaches criminology and media at St Mary's University College, Twickenham and for the last two years has regularly guest lectured at Kings College London where he currently runs the MA Criminology and Criminal Justice internship module.  His research interests and publications are diverse but include: car crime, green criminology, gender, sexuality, CCTV/surveillance and public/media criminology. 
 
Tim Newburn (London School of Economics)
Tim Newburn is Professor of Criminology and Social Policy and Head of Department of Social Policy at the LSE. His research interests are primarily in the areas of policing, juvenile justice and comparative penal policy. He is currently engaged in writing an Official History of Criminal Justice.
 
Megan O'Neill (University of Salford)
Megan O’Neill is a Senior Lecturer in Criminology at the University of Salford.  She is currently Programme Leader for the Criminology-based suite of undergraduate programmes.  Her research interests focus on the police and policing studies, including aspects of plural policing and PCSOs.
 

Criminology & Criminal Justice
CCJ is the official journal of the British Society of Criminology  It is a leading, peer reviewed journal of original research and thinking in the field and seeks to reflect the vibrancy of the discipline of criminology throughout the UK and internationally. The journal publishes scholarly articles on all areas of crime and criminal justice: from policing to sentencing, community penalties and prisons; and from crime prevention to victims of crime. It is now Indexed in the Social Science Citation Index Expanded® (Impact Factor pending).  Members of the British Society of Criminology receive priority copies of the CCJ and its archives are accessible on line in the Members' Area of this website. CCJ is published by SAGE with an editorial team based currently at Cardiff University.  From January 2011 this will move to the University of Leeds

British Society of Criminology Newsletter

The British Society of Criminology Newsletter, containing articles on current criminological issues and news, is published biannually.

The full edition is available for members only in the Members' Area. Selected articles are available here.
 
Latest Edition: No. 74, Summer 2014,  ISSN 1759-8354
Scottish Independence and Criminal
Justice Gerry Mooney?, 'The Scottish Independence Debate: Class, Nation and the Politics of Criminal Justice', 4-7
Read this article here
Nick Fyfe, 'Observations on Police Reform in Scotland', 8-12
Read this article here
Brian Francis, 'Keith Soothill, Professor of Social Research 1941- 2014',p14
Read this article here
We do have a Newsletter Archive for non-members: Free Download of the following articles
 
No. 73, Winter 2013, ISSN 1759-8352
The Importation of Super-Prisons
Keith Hayward and Roger Matthews, ‘A tribute to Jock Young 1942-2013’, 5-6
Read this article here
Stephen Farrall, ‘Presenting the BSC Outstanding Achievement Award to Joanna Shapland’, p7
Read this article here
Joanna Shapland, ‘British Society of Criminology Outstanding Achievement Award 2013 Acceptance Speech‘ 8-9
Read this article here
The importation of super-prisons
Loïc Wacquant, ‘Supermax Swindle: On the Contradictions of the Meta-prison’ 10-14
Read this article here
Rob Allen, ‘‘Titaning’ our Belts’, 15-18
Read this article here
 

No. 72, Summer 2013, ISSN 1759-8352
Gun Control
Amitai Etzioni, ‘Guns do kill best’, 5-7.
Read this article here
Peter Squires, ‘Educating Wayne: Debating gun control with the NRA’, 8-10.
Read this article here
Roxana Cavalcanti, ‘Edge of a barrel: Gun violence and the politics of gun control in Brazil’, 11-14.
Read this article here
The Future of Probation
Michael Teague, ‘Rehabilitation, punishment and profit: The dismantling of
public-sector probation’, 15-19.
Read this article here
Lol Burke, ‘The 2013 Offender Rehabilitation Bill: ‘A curious mix?’’, 20-24.
Read this article here
 
No. 71, Winter 2012, ISSN 1759-8354
Pat Carlen, 'Presenting the BSC Outstanding Achievement Award to Jock Young', 5-6.
Read this article here
The Jimmy Savile Scandal
Chris Greer and Eugene McLaughlin, 'A Paedophile Scandal Foretold: Sir Jimmy Savile, Child Sexual Abuse and the BBC', 7-11.
Read this article here
Andrew O'Hagan, 'Light Entertainment: Child Abuse and the British Public', 12-16
Read this article here
Malcolm Cowburn, 'Reflections on the Jimmy Savile Disclosures: Grooming and Denial Behind the Masks of Masculinities', 17-20.
Read this article here
Howard Davis, 'The Performance of Shock and the Ubiquity of Cover-up', 21-24.
Read this article here
 
No. 70, Summer 2012, ISSN 1759-8354
Nic Groombridge, 'Sports (Criminology) Illustrated', 3-6.
Read this article here
Jon Coaffee, 'Resilience Through Lockdown: Reflections on ‘Total Security’ Preparations for London 2012', 7-10.
Read this article here
Allan Brimicombe, 'The Olympics and (Hopefully Very Little) Criminology: Some Economic Viewpoints', 11-13.
Read this article here
Suzanne Young, Simon Mackenzie, Michelle Burman, Nick Fyfe, Niall. Hamilton-Smith, Chris Johnston and Jonny Pickering, 'The Culture of High. Security: A Case Study of the 2014 Glasgow Commonwealth Games (G2014)', 14-17.
Read this article here
 
No. 69, Winter 2011, ISSN 1759-8354
Andrew Millie, ‘Editorial: Reflections on an English Summer of Rioting and Looting’, 1-2.
Read this article here
Loraine Gelsthorpe, ‘A letter from our President’, 3-4.
Read this article here
Jill Peay, ‘Presenting the BSC Outstanding Achievement Award to Robert Reiner’, 6-8.
Read this article here
Robert Reiner, ‘British Society of Criminology Outstanding Achievement Award 2011 Acceptance Speech’, 9-11.
Read this article here

Tim Newburn, ‘Reading the Riots’, 12-14.
Read this article here
Jon Silverman, ‘Reflections on the Riots’, 15-16.
Read this article here
John Lea, ‘Shock Horror: Rioters Cause Riots! Criminals Cause Crime!’, 17-19.
Read this article here
 
No. 68, Summer 2011, ISSN 1759-8354
Amanda White, Robert Street and Teresa Williams, ‘Crime and Justice Research at the Home Office & Ministry of Justice’, 5-7.
Read this article here
Charlotte Bilby, ‘Insider Art: An Exhibition of Offender Artwork at the BSC Conference, Northumbria University’, 8-10.
Read this article here
 
No. 67, Winter 2010, ISSN 1759-8354
Anne Worrall, 'On Presenting the BSC's Outstanding Achievement Award to Professor Pat Carlen', 5-6. Read this article here
Pat Carlen, '2010 Outstanding Achievement Award Acceptance Speech', 7-9. Read this article here
Steve Tombs and David Whyte, 'Regulatory Surrender', 10-13. Read this article here
Gemma Buckland, 'The Justice Select Committee and the BSC', 14-15. Read this article here
 
No.66, Summer 2010, ISSN 1759-8354
Phillip Stenning and Robert Reiner, ‘A Tribute to Jean-Paul Brodeur 1943-2010’, 3-4. Read this article here
Features - Crime and Criminal Justice Following the 2010 UK General Election
Stephen Farrall, ‘What Criminal Justice Policies Might the Lib Dem-Con Government Pursue?’, 5-7. Read this article here
Jonathan Simon, ‘Crime and The New Politics: Will Cameron and Clegg Govern Through Crime?’, 8-9. Read this article here
Steve Savage, ‘More Accountability - Less Regulation? Coalition Plans for Policing’, 10-12. Read this article here
Juliet Lyon CBE, ‘Justice Reform - Next Steps’, 13-14. Read this article here
 
No. 65, Winter 2009, ISSN 1759-8354
Features
Friedrich Lösel, ‘Half a Century of Challenging Crime: The Cambridge Institute of Criminology Celebrates its 50th Anniversary’, pp6-7. Read this article here
Neil Chakraborti, ‘The ASC 2009 in Philadelphia: Reflections from a First-Timer’, pp8-9. Read this article here

No. 64, Special Edition, Autumn 2009, ISSN 1759-8354
Features
David Downes, ‘Presenting the Outstanding Achievement in Criminology Award to Professor Stanley Cohen’, pp3-4. Read this article here
 
Stanley Cohen, ‘Carry on Panicking’, pp5-10. Read this article here
Eugene McLaughlin, ‘Life on Mars’, pp11-12. Read this article here

No. 63, Summer 2009, ISSN 1759-8354
Features
Paul Rock, ‘Writing an Official History of the Criminal Justice System’, p16. Read this article here
 
Adam Crawford, ‘Anti-Social Behaviour and Respect: An ESRC Seminar Series’, pp17-18. Read this article here
 
Alison Liebling, ‘Women in Prison Prefer Legitimacy to Sex’, pp19-23. Read this article here
Ian O’Donnell, ‘The Irish Criminology Conference’, pp24-25. Read this article here

No. 62, Winter 2008, ISSN 1759-8354
Features
Helen Bulpitt, ‘Support for Teaching and Learning’, pp14-16. Read this article here
Graham Farrell, Nick Tilley, Andromachi Tseloni and Jen Mailley, ‘The Crime Drop and the Security Hypothesis’, pp17-21. Read this article here
 
Alex Farquharson, ‘The Impossible Prison’, pp-25. Read this article here

No. 61, Winter 2006
Features
Paul Rock, ‘Criminological Reflections from the City of Quartz’, pp9-10. Read this article here

No. 60, Summer 2006
Features
Home Office Research: March Event Opens Dialogue on Research for Policy, pp2-8. Read this article here
Including:
Chloe Chitty, Robert Street, Duncan Stewart and Rosalyn Xavier, ‘Rules of Evidence: Doing and Using Research for Criminal Justice Policy, Take One’, pp2-3.
Mike Hough, Alison Liebling and Loraine Gelsthorpe, ‘Reflections on the RDS NOMS Agenda: The Three Discussants Each Set Out Their Reflections on the Presentation’, pp4-6.
Gordon Hughes, ‘Doing Research for Policy: Personal Reflections on Some Challenges for the Criminological Academy’, pp6-7.

No. 59, February 2006, ISSN 1357-9398
Viewpoint
Max Travers, ‘The Methods Debate in Criminology’, pp10-11. (Scanned copy) Read this article here
 
 

Papers from the British Criminology Conference
Vol. 1.Selected papers from the 1995 British Criminology Conference, Loughborough. Volume Editors: Jon Vagg and Tim Newburn. September 1998.
Vol. 2. Selected papers from the 1997 British Criminology Conference, Belfast. Volume Editor: Mike Brogden. March 1999.
Vol. 3. Selected papers from the 1999 British Criminology Conference, Liverpool. Volume Editors: George Mair and Roger Tarling. June 2000.
Vol. 4. Selected papers from the 2000 British Criminology Conference, Leicester. Volume Editor: Roger Tarling. July 2000.
Vol. 5. Selected papers from the 2002 British Criminology Conference, Keele. Volume Editor: Roger Tarling August 2003.
Vol. 6. Selected papers from the 2003 British Criminology Conference, Bangor in June 2003
Vol. 7. Selected papers from the 2004 British Criminology Conference, Portsmouth July 2004
Vol. 8. Papers from the British Criminology Conference 2008
Vol. 9. Papers from the British Criminology Conference 2009
Vol. 10. Papers from the British Criminology Conference 2010
Vol. 11. Papers from the British Criminology Conference 2011
Vol 12. Papers from the British Criminology Conference 2012
Vol 13. Papers from the British Criminology Conference 2013
Vol 14. Papers from the British Criminology Conference 2014
 
Copyright information: (c) Copyright in each contribution to this web journal lies with the relevant author(s). Copyright in the journal and its volumes is held by the British Society of Criminology. Pages of the journal may be downloaded, read, and printed. No material should be altered, reposted, distributed or sold without permission. Further enquiries should be made to the British Society of Criminology.

Book Reviews
Book reviews are no longer commissioned directly by the BSC.  More recent reviews appear in the CCJ (see above).
A World View of Criminal Justice
Richard Vogler, Ashgate, 2005
Adolescent Crime
Wikstrom, P H and Butterworth, D,(2006)
After the War on Drugs. Options for Control.
A Report by Transform Drug Policy Foundation, Rolles, Kushlick & Jay, 2004
Alternatives to prison: options for an insecure society
Ed. by A. Bottoms, S. Rex & G. Robinson, Willan Publishing, 2004
An Introduction to Criminological Theory, 2 nd Ed.
R. Hopkins Burke, Willan Publishing, 2005
Anti-social behaviour strategies : finding a balance
Millie, A. Jacobson, J, McDonald E and Hough M (2005). Bristol, Policy Press.
Behind the Blue Lamp: Policing North and East London
P. Kennison & D. Swinden, Coppermill Press, 2003
Clues from Killers: Serial Murder and Crime Scene Messages
D. Gibson, Praeger , 2004
Combating organised crime, Best practice surveys of the Council of Europe
Council of Europe Publishing, 2004
Community Policing. National and international models and approaches
M. Brogden & P. Nijhar , Willan Publishing
Community safety: critical perspectives on policy and practice
Squires, P. (2006). (ed) Bristol, UK, Policy Press.
Comparative Youth Justice
Edited by John Muncie and Barry Goldson
Crime and Social Institutions
Edited by Richard Rosenfeld, Ashgate, 2006
Crime Policy in Europe: Good Practices and promising examples
Council of Europe Publishing: December, 2004
Crime Science: New Approaches to Preventing and Detecting Crime
M.J Smith & N.Tilley , Willan Publishing, 2005
Criminal Justice
Lucia Zedner. Oxford University Press. 2004
Criminal Law (4 th ed).
N. Padfield, OUP, 2005
Criminal Law
Nicola Padfield,Oxford University Press, 2006
Criminology: The basics
Sandra Walklate Routledge 2005
Cultural Criminology Unleashed
Ed. by J. Ferrell, K. Hayward, W. Morrison & M. Presdee, Glasshouse Press, 2005
Cybercrime and Society
by Majid Yar (Sage, 2006)
Deleuze and Environmental Damage, The Violence of the Text
Halsey, M., 2006 (Ashgate)
Democratic Policing in Transitional and Developing Countries
Pino, Natham and Wiatrowski, Michael, (eds)
Effective Practice in Youth Justice
Stephenson M, Giller H and Brown S, Willan Publishing 2007
Evidence-based crime prevention
Sherman LW, Farrington D P, Welch B C, Mackenzie D L (2006)
Extreme Killing. Understanding Serial and Mass Murder
Fox, J.A. and Levin, J. (2005).
Football Hooliganism
Steve Frosdick and Peter Marsh (Willan, 2005)
Genetic Testing and the Criminal Law
Chalmers, Don (2005)
Getting out and staying out: results of the prisoner Resettlement Pathfinders
Clancy et al., (2006) The Policy Press: Bristol
Governing paradoxes of restorative justice
by George Pavlich. London, Sydney and Portland OR: Glasshouse Press. 2005
Halting the Sexual Predators among Us: Preventing Attack, Rape, and Lust Homicide
D. L. Dobbert, Westport Connecticut, Praeger, 2004
Handbook of Transnational Crime & Justice
Ed by P. Reichel, Thousand Oaks, 2005
Homicide by the Rich and Famous: A Century of Prominent Killers
G. Graham Scott, Praeger Publishers, 2005
Humane Prisons
Jones, David (editor) (2006, Oxford: Radcliffe).
Imagining Security
Jennifer & Shearing, Clifford (2007),Cullompton: Willan.
Incivilities: Regulating Offensive Behaviour
Andrew von Hirsch and A.P. Simester (eds.) (2006), Oxford and Portland Oregon: Hart Publishing.
Integrating Victims in Restorative Youth Justice
Adam Crawford and Tom Burden, Policy Press, 2005
International Approaches to Prostitution: Law and policy in Europe and Asia
Geetanjali Gangoli and Nicole Westmarland (Editors)Bristol: The Policy Press, 2006
International Criminal Law Deskbook
John Grant & J Craig Barker. Cavendish Publishing.
Inside the Minds of Mass Murderers: Why They Kill.
K. Ramsland, Praeger, 2005
Ironies of Punishment.
M. Welch, Sage Publications, 2005
Managing Modernity: Politics and the Culture of Control
Matt Matravers (Ed) (Routledge, 2005)
Managing social research: a practical guide
London, Rouledge. Tarling, R (2006,)
Murder and Society
Morrall, Peter. Chichester: Wiley 2006
My Brother's Keeper. Faith-based units in prisons
Burnside, J., Loucks, N/. Adler, J.R. & Rose, G. (2005). Devon: Willan.
New Directions in Restorative Justice: issues, practice, evaluation.
Elizabeth Elliott and Robert M Gordon, eds Cullompton: Willan, 2005.
Offenders' Memories of Violent Crimes
Edited by Sven A Christianson , John Wiley & Sons, Ltd 2007
Offending Identities. Sex offender’s perspectives on their treatment and management
K. Hudson, Willan Publishing, 2005
Only Pictures? Therapeutic work with Internet Sex Offenders
Ethel Quayle et al. (2006)
Organised Crime
Alan Wright. Willan Publishing
Penal Populism
John Pratt, 2007, London: Routledge.
Plural Policing - the Mixed Economy of Visible Patrols in England and Wales
Crawford A, Lister S, Blackburn S and Burnett J, The Policy Press, 2005.
Policing Key Readings
(Ed) T. Newburn , Willan Publishing, 2005
Psychological Jurisprudence: Critical Explorations in Law, Crime and Society
(Ed.) B. A. Arrigo, State University of New York Press, 2004
Questioning Crime and Criminology
Moira Peelo and Keith Soothill (eds),Cullompton: Willan 2005
Reclaiming the Streets: surveillance, social control and the city
R. Coleman, Willan Publishing, 2004
Reshaping probation and prisons: the new offender management framework
Mike Hough, Rob Allen, and Una Padel, eds. Bristol: Policy Press, 2006. Reviewed by Martin Wright
Reshaping probation and prisons. The new offender management framework. Researching Criminal Justice Series
Hough, M., Allen, R. and Padel, U. (Eds) The Policy Press. 2006. Reviewed by Maurice Vanstone
Restorative Justice in Prisons - A Guide to Making it Happen
Edger, K., & Newell, T.,Waterside Press, (2006)
Restoring justice: an introduction to restorative justice
Daniel W Van Ness and Karen Heetderks Strong.
Re-Thinking the Political Economy of Punishment: Perspectives on Post-Fordism and Penal Politics
by Alessandro De Giorgi, 2006
Sentencing in the Age of Information: From Faust to Macintosh
Aas, K.F. (2005)
Serious Delinquency: An Anthology
Thomas J. Bernard (Editor) Los Angeles: Roxbury Publishing Company, 2006
Sex Crime: Sex Offending and Society (2nd Ed).
Terry Thomas
Sex Work Now
Campbell, R & O'Neill M (Editors): Willan 2006
Silently Silenced: Essays on the Creation of Acquiescence in Modern Society.
T. Mathiesen, Waterside Press, 2004
Situational Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse, Crime Prevention Studies Volume 19
Wortley, R and Smallbone, S (Eds) 2006, Cullompton: Willan Publishing
Student Handbook of Criminal Justice and Criminology.
J. Muncie & D. Wilson (eds.), Cavendish, 2004
Surviving Russian Prisons: Punishment, economy and politics in transition.
L. Piacentini, Willan Publishing, 2004
Tackling the roots of racism, lessons for success
Reena Bhvnani, Heidi Safia Mirza and Veena Meetoo
The Dark Side of Democracy. Explaining Ethnic Cleansing
Mann, Michael (2005)
The Effects of Imprisonment
Alison Liebling and Shadd Maruna (Eds) (Willan Publishing, 2005)
The Russian Mafia: Private Protection in a New Market Economy.
F. Varese, Oxford University Publishing, 2001
Theorizing Surveillance: The Panopticon and Beyond
David Lyon (Editor), 2006, Collompton, Devon, UK: Willan Publishing.
The Vertigo of Late Modernity
Jock Young, Sage Publications, 2007
The War on Terrorism and the Rule of Law
by Richard M. Pious, 2006, Los Angeles, California: Roxbury Publishing Company.
Transnational and Comparative Criminology.
Ed by J. Sheptycki & A. Wardak, Glasshouse Press, 2005
Understanding Drugs, Alcohol and Crime
Trevor Bennett and Kay Holloway
Understanding Homicide
Brookman, Fiona (2005)
Understanding Street Drugs - A Handbook of Substance Misuse for Parents, Teachers and Other Professionals
Second Edition. By David Emmett and Graeme Nice. Jessica Kingsley Publishers. 2006
Understanding Victims and Restorative Justice
James Dignan,Open University Press,2005
Victims of crime and community justice
Brian Williams.London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2005.
Virtually Criminal: Crime, Deviance & Regulation Online
Williams, M. (2006)London: Routledge
Violence Workers. Police Torturers and Murderers Reconstruct Brazilian Atrocities.
M. K. Huggins, M. Hartos-Fatouros & P. G. Zimbardo, University of California Press
Voices from the Field - Readings in Criminal Justice Research
Pope, C. E., Lovell, R., and Brandl, S. G. (Eds.). Wadsworth, 2001.

Tackling the roots of racism, lessons for success, Reena Bhvnani, Heidi Safia Mirza and Veena Meetoo
Tackling the roots of racism is an interesting and informative text which delves into 3 related to but previously little researched areas of racism, that is, the precise causes of racism, institutional racism and the relationship these two issues have with policies directed at promoting equality and diversity. The book focuses on issues of equality opportunity however as well as that there is a focus the underlying argument that racism to be tackled in its localised everyday contexts and it is this argument which informs the layout of the book.
The book begins with a brief introduction which specifies what issues are discussed in further detail and those which are outside the scope of the book; the final section of the introduction provides an overview of the way in which the chapters are organised. The first half of the book provides a thorough overview of the subject matter and is broken down into several chapters,
Chapter one concentrates on terminology such as race and ethnicity and provides a clear discussion on the origins of racism from the inception of the word 'race' and the various ways in which the term has been applied through to what the authors have termed 'the new racisms' which they argue are grounded in cultural rather than scientific foundations.
Chapter two identifies and discusses policies and interventions introduced to tackle racism in Britain under two broad headings though emphasis is placed on the former; 'equality interventions' or those policies which aim to promote equality regardless of race and 'multicultural interventions' which aim to promote difference and community cohesion.
Chapter three tackles the areas of everyday elite racism i.e. racism by corporate heads, lawyers and media professionals and discusses in depth the changing nature of elite racism and the effect of the media in perpetuating such racism with specific reference to asylum seekers. The remainder of the chapter examines notions of multiculturalism, Britishness and whiteness and the need for recognition of the problem against the backdrop of elite racism.
Chapter four concentrates on everyday situated racism which is manifested by everyday people in localised contexts. The authors approach their examination of this subject in two different ways. The first half of the chapter places everyday racism in the realms of social psychology and places emphasis on stereotyping and in group/out group dynamics and the second half of the chapter refers to anthropological work with relation to class, gender, disability and age.
Chapter five briefly deals with aspects of the law in relation to race and begins with an overview of the way in which legislation dealing with race equality has been introduced in the UK. The authors go onto offer an analysis of current legislation and argue that there is a lack of evidence to show whether such legislation has worked due to a lack of research.
Chapter six examines the role of equal opportunities in the work place in relation to a variety of employment situations including training, recruitment, fair treatment within the workplace, promotion and racial harassment.
The second half of the book is equally well written and examines in more detail some of the issues raised in the previous chapters. Chapter seven uses the previous discussion regarding employment as a template and looks at accessibility to services such as housing, education, health and welfare and the arts whilst chapters eight, nine and ten provide an in depth discussion on the usefulness of current multicultural interventions as well as offering the reader well informed opinions, ideas and conclusions on what works in tackling racism.
Melody Askari
University of Leicester

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Effective Practice in Youth Justice, Stephenson M, Giller H and Brown S, Willan Publishing 2007
This book is derived from a series of readers commissioned by the Youth Justice Board. The originals contained prescriptive practice guidance which has been largely removed
The book is now intended to serve as a resource for students undertaking courses in youth justice policy and practice such as run by the Open University.
It seeks to cover all areas of youth justice practice and it does this well whilst enabling individual sections to be read as separate modules.
The book starts however with a substantial discourse on the issues surrounding the definition of effectiveness and raises the usual demons of experimental methodology in determining what can be said to be effective.
It also raises the concern that so-called evidence-based policy might be less evidence-based than it claims.
Practitioners in training will be likely to imagine that there is a well-defined set of research outcomes which provide evidence to support clear guidance on what and what not to do as a practitioner. They will be sadly disappointed to learn from this book that this is not the case. This book clearly portrays the barely-researched foundations of much which passes for required professional practice in Youth Justice.
Individual chapters provide excellent pictures of the state of the art in each field of practice but should leave students recognising the distance that has yet to be travelled as well as the considerable scope for contention in policy and practice debates.
As a former OU tutor myself, I recognise here and there the penetration of favourite OU themes such as the "Risk Society" which I think are however potentially only likely to confuse the likely readership and I do wish commentators on research methodology would cease peddling the myths about the alleged medical origins, failures and currency of the RCT design for determining interventions effectiveness.
These criticisms apart, this is a book which I would commend to tutors seeking a good overall guide to likely best practice in youth justice
Paul Kiff
University of East London
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Criminal Law. Nicola Padfield, Oxford University Press, 2006
In this fifth edition of the core text series on criminal law, Nicola Padfield stays true to the premises set out in the first edition: to simplify the principles and structure of criminal law and make it more accessible to criminal law students (though advising them to read more on the subject to have a better grasp of the more complex questions). This book is written in a direct simple way and allows the reader to enter basic criminal law concepts easily. However, it is not at all a simplistic book, it has the ability to be both very accessible (in context and visually) and to raise important questions regarding criminal law and policy. Examples of this are the introduction to the chapter on sexual offences with the discussion on the need for the existence of a crime of 'rape', and the challenges it puts to students to solve the problems raised by some case law before advising them to advance to another chapter.
The structure of the book reflects very much that of previous editions. It discusses general principles of criminal law under the titles: 'the conduct element of a crime', 'criminal states of mind', 'incapacitating conditions', 'general defences', 'accomplices' and 'inchoate offences'; and then analyses different crimes in detail, such as homicide, assault, sexual assault, theft, criminal damage and crimes against the environment. This duality in the book's structure is not unique but is very similar to the bi-partition of the majority of criminal codes adopted in civil law countries. Could this be a demonstration of the author's desire for a criminal code, expressed in the book's Introduction? In any case, the book includes updates in relation to previous editions, the most obvious ones, pointed to us on the Preface, are the analysis of the Sexual Offences Act 2003 and the Fraud Bill 2005. These help clarifying the legal changes in these fields in a very accessible way. An aspect which could have been better explored is that related to the European Union. The paragraph introduced on this subject is not clear for someone who is not familiar with the structure of the EU; it mentions somewhat too superficially the complex matter of the third pillar of the EU and new developments that may arise in terms of international criminal policy. It would seem more appropriate to dedicate more space to the case law of the European Court of Human Rights due to its pervasive nature into member-states' internal criminal policy, thus complementing the paragraphs on the Human Rights Act 1998.
Even though it may appear to be a small book, Criminal Law includes huge amount of information (not only substantive aspects of criminal law but also describing briefly the criminal justice process and the court structure) and gives the reader grounded, practical advice. It is a book written for students, thinking about students and that will surely serve them extremely well as a basic textbook for criminal law.
Sofia Graca
Lecturer at Canterbury Christ Church University

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The Vertigo of Late Modernity, Jock Young, Sage Publications, 2007
Young argues that in 'late modernity' we experience feelings of precariousness and 'ontological insecurity.' That which constitutes our identity: work, family and community are not what they used to be in modernity, hence a sense of vertigo is engendered - a fear of falling downwards.
Whereas the welfare state was characterized by high employment; stable family structures and consensual values, today's society is characterized by structural unemployment; an assault on welfare; and a burgeoning pluralism/individualism. These changes produce great feelings of insecurity which generate processes of 'othering.' Conservative othering demonises and liberal othering includes, but both posit a 'gulf' between 'us' and 'them'. Core to Young's project is a critique of the processes of othering, whether liberal or conservative.
He uses the metaphor of a 'bulimic society'- one which ingests (includes) and then vomits out (excludes). Whereas exclusive societies are exclusive, both culturally and structurally (Young gives the example of apartheid South Africa), a bulimic society is culturally inclusive, yet structurally exclusive (western liberal democracies). Referring to Carl Nightingale's ethnography of the black Philadelphian underclass he points out that the ghetto culture involves an embracing of mainstream American values, rather than a rejection of them and he argues against a discourse that binarises (e.g. the British government's discourse on social exclusion).
Young draws on cultural criminologists who, in critiquing rational choice criminology, point out that crime is not always the result of a rational decision. The ghetto poor suffer not only from a lack of goods but also from acute humiliation and where crime is driven by this humiliation, it becomes transgressive. As Young says, his theory of bulimia is 'Merton with energy, it is Katz with structure.'
Although he paints a dark picture of the insecurities experienced in late modernity he does have a normative agenda insofar as he argues for a 'politics of diversity' which values hybridization and interaction rather than essences and stasis. He proposes the building of a transformative politics which 'tackles problems of economic injustice and builds and cherishes a society of genuine diversity.'
Young has done impressive secondary research and quotes extensively from an array of authors. This is both a strength and weakness for it is sometimes difficult to distinguish which research he has done himself and which is a synthesizing of arguments made by others. At times the text lapses into vagueness and generalizations. His periodisation of modernity and late modernity is open to critique as is his tendency to glorify modernity as a 'golden age' of inclusion when in fact we know that it was largely males who were fully employed and there was inequality and pockets of poverty. He also refers to 'globalisation' as if it is something that just happened. But globalization of ideas and economic policies came about as a result of distinct processes and agents. Ironically, here Young plays into the neoliberal ideology of a market with 'logic' and he weakens his argument by reifying the concept of 'market forces.'
Gail Super, New York University
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Offenders' Memories of Violent Crimes. Edited by Sven A Christianson , John Wiley & Sons, Ltd 2007
One of the uncomfortable, yet pertinent points addressed in this book and an empirically difficult question is how can we ever know which memory is true when interviewing suspects/offenders? This book attempts to answer this question through theoretical insights contained within the three parts of the book. Part one is devoted to theoretical aspects of offenders' memories. The chapters in part one contain valuable insights into detecting amnesia and the surprising lack of training criminal justice professionals receive. Important issues are raised regarding the impact on professionals who constantly hear stories of violence; an often uncomfortable field of enquiry. Eyewitness memory and the lack of research into offenders memories are considered in part one; a serious omission if future violent crime is to be prevented. An interesting chapter pertaining to young offenders is included and challenges traditional assumptions regarding alcohol and drug induced violence and loss of memory.
Part Two evaluates offenders' memories and the ensuing chapters commence with an historical overview of the brain, personality and interaction between the brain and environment. The use of case studies enables the reader to comprehend an otherwise highly complex physiological chapter. Feigning amnesia is addressed via a very helpful case study contextualising what is to come. Concepts such as 'red outs' are discussed and highlight the complexity of detecting amnesia. Malingering and evaluating the authenticity of crime related amnesia and the difficulties facing professionals in such cases are presented in a thought provoking format.
Part Three comprises six chapters all concerned with interviewing offenders and provides interesting research into interviewing and interrogation techniques past and present. The questioning of terrorist suspects is timely. Given the significance of the topic this section was sparse in comparison to other areas. Cognitive interviewing and the peculiarities of the technique were concisely yet informatively outlined. The book concludes with a thoughtful chapter on therapeutic jurisprudential approaches (TJA) derived from mental health law; designed to promote the social and psychological well being of individuals involved in juridical action.
The first two parts of the book are written with professionals in mind they will both understand the terminology and benefit from the rich data. All parts of the book contain extensive literature reviews. At times the chapters can be repetitive studies are referred to more than once albeit in different contexts. Part three is particularly informative if false confessions and subsequent wrongful convictions are to be eradicated as neither is in the interest of criminal justice or the victims of crime. A weakness of the book is the reliance on the use of lab studies replicating interview/scenarios relating to heinous sexual and violent crime. Ethically and morally such studies cannot recognise the real life context in which offences take place or the reaction of the offender. The book would have benefited from differentiating between and including gender and ethnic specific studies with a view to dispelling myths. Overall this is a well thought out and informative book and will be of interest to those who work with serious violent offenders.
Jenny Clifford - University of Bath
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Voices from the Field - Readings in Criminal Justice Research, Pope, C. E., Lovell, R., and Brandl, S. G. (Eds.). Wadsworth, 2001.
This book contains a collection of eighteen research studies taken from criminal justice journals, with the intention of providing criminology students with practical examples of how and why different methodologies are adopted in criminal justice contexts. The book is not intended to offer in-depth technical principles of the methodologies that it covers; rather it provides detailed examples of how the methodologies have been used in practice so that students can appreciate the applied nature of the various data collection methods, sampling and measurement considerations, ethical considerations and other practical concerns.
The editors of this volume are based at the Department of Criminal Justice at University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, and as such their approach is presumably aimed at Canadian undergraduates. However, the Introduction and overviews are easy to understand and offer useful explanations. At the end of the Introduction, the editors promote critical examination of the research articles by posing questions that should encourage the reader to think about content and presentational aspects of research such as the reason for conducting the study, the research question/hypothesis, research design, control group comparisons, appropriate statistical tests, findings and implications.
The book's format is set out well and is easy to follow, with an Introduction that gives clear context to the methodologies and articles to follow. It is worth bearing in mind that some of the research articles used to illustrate examples of methodology are dated (the majority of articles date back to the early to mid 1990s), although they remain good examples of well-executed, uncomplicated and diverse research design.
The book is split into seven parts, including an introduction. The six main parts each consider a different research methodology:-
" Experimental Research and its Variations;
" Survey Research;
" Field Research;
" Analysis of Existing Records;
" Secondary Data Analysis; and
" Other Methods.
Each of these chapters begins with a concise and easy to understand explanation of how the specified methodology should be used. There are three articles featured to illustrate how each research methodology can be pragmatically employed, with each article including a commentary written by the authors of the studies, written exclusively for inclusion in this book. These commentaries give useful contextualisation information relating to the rationale for the research being undertaken, how the researchers came to be involved in that particular study, how a particular methodology was decided upon, and so on. The editors raise pertinent discussion questions for each article, intended to encourage the reader to think objectively about why the specified research was designed in the way it was, what were its limitations, issues concerning research populations, the effectiveness of the methodology used, ethical issues involved with research, and so on.
This book was written in 2001 and the example articles are sourced from the previous decade. However, much of the subject matter is very relevant today, such as social skills training to combat offending, impact of race on citizens' attitudes towards the police, fear of victimisation, and gang violence and would be useful as comparative studies for up to date research. Research methodologies and the way that research articles are written have not developed significantly beyond the approaches taken in these studies and therefore, the articles and explanatory notes offered give the reader a sound introduction to applied criminal justice research methodologies.
Andrew Brownsell
Criminal Justice Researcher/Statistician

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Integrating Victims in Restorative Youth Justice, Adam Crawford and Tom Burden, Policy Press, 2005
This volume from the Researching Criminal Justice Series reports on the findings of a six month cohort study of the 'experiences of victims and young people who participate in the referral order process' and the 'impact of victim input into youth offender panels for young people and victims' (p21) at the Leeds Youth Offending Team (YOT).
The structure of the book follows a logical sequence, orientating those readers who have little or no previous knowledge of referral orders or restorative justice. Chapter one provides a brief overview of youth justice reform under 'New Labour', outlines the introduction, purpose and structure of referral orders, explains restorative justice as a new concept of justice and the role that victims may play in it.
Chapter 2 discusses the way in which the research for this study was conducted. While this is a largely focused study on the workings of the Leeds Youth Offending Service and the experiences of its staff and the offenders and victims who find themselves participating in referral orders there, the authors regularly link this study back to the national evaluation which was conducted on YOTs during the pilot phase.
Chapter 3 outlines both the structure and the inner workings of the Leeds YOS; chapter 4 reports on the findings of victims' experience of coming into contact with the Leeds YOS; chapter 5 reports on the findings of young people's experience of coming into contact with the Leeds YOS; and finally, chapter 6 reports on contracts and compliance in the referral orders studied.
Findings indicate that victim participation remains low at around 9% of panel meetings, which the authors attribute to the process of victim contact within the YOT and the targets set by the government. Nevertheless, those victims that did participate in the process (around 85%) reported that they were satisfied with the service delivered. Victim presence at a panel meeting is also reported to have a significant impact on the offender 'in terms of their views regarding how people are affected by their actions, keeping out of trouble and their capacity to put the offence behind them' (p77).
While the authors do support the notion that both victims and offenders can significantly benefit from contact, they do acknowledge the fact that victim participation will not always be appropriate (p92).
This publication not only provides an insight into how referral orders work and the role that victims may play, but also highlights the practical and conceptual issues of including victims in restorative youth justice. The authors point out that 'involving victims in a meaningful and sensitive way within the youth offender panel process constitutes one of the greatest challenges in realising the full potential of referral orders' (p x).
This book will certainly prove to be an excellent resource for policy - makers, practitioners, students and individuals interested in the burgeoning field of restorative youth justice and victimology.
Kerry Clamp, University of Sheffield
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Community safety: critical perspectives on policy and practice. Squires, P. (2006). (ed) Bristol, UK, Policy Press.
Anti-social behaviour strategies : finding a balance. Millie, A. Jacobson, J, McDonald E and Hough M (2005). Bristol, Policy Press.
Reading Community safety: critical perspectives on policy and practice, one is immediately reminded of the heady days of 1997, when New Labour galloped to victory in the polls and the old Conservatives and their ways were to be consigned to the dustbin of history. Things could only get better and in the field of community safety good practice had already been developing on an area by area basis as the principles of community safety, rather than the rationale of crime prevention was beginning to infuse regeneration work at the neighbourhood level. In 1997 I was working as a Community Safety Co-ordinator for the Moss Side and Hulme Partnership, a regeneration body, nominally independent from but in reality very much tied to Manchester Council's Chief Executive's Department. The Partnership prided itself on having pushed through a progressive and effective strategy of regeneration which had transformed the area of Hulme in Manchester from one littered with empty council flats to swiftly becoming a smart "inner-city" suburb - with house prices to match. (Harding et al 2002) In neighbouring Moss-Side the Partnership was still grappling with the multiple problems brought by poverty, exclusion and an embattled community. The work of the Moss Side and Hulme Partnership did not always run smoothly and tensions with the local resident community were especially apparent but in some respects its strategy was felt to be an example of the new thinking around crime and disorder which placed partnership at its core and saw the promotion of safety for all as its goal. This was an exemplar for the regeneration of Manchester which Eastside Regeneration in Manchester emulated when it later came on stream and we assumed that much of the good practice which had been developed would be adopted and incorporated into national guidance as Labour took office.
The chapters in this collection, however, show that the reality of the New Labour project on crime and safety panned out somewhat differently. Squires commissioned these writings in order to "allow an interrogation of the discourse, policy and practice of community safety" (p1) and was left with four sections which in turn chart the community safety project as incomplete, contested, flawed and overrun by enforcement. The published contributions, some informed by primary research, focus on the very different issues and populations which inform a community safety agenda, including work on the safety of young people in custody, of gay and transgender communities and of those subject to violence within the family. Fitzgerald and Hale's exploration of the experience of ethnic minorities develops some especially relevant arguments concerning the safety of these communities post 9/11. It follows the twists of New Labour's discourse, from the promise of the Macpherson Report to the exclusionary anti-immigration and anti-terrorism rhetoric with which ten years of New Labour ends.
Community safety was about extending the ownership of the problem of crime so that other expertise apart from that brought to the table by the police would also be afforded some recognition. The pessimism of "nothing works" was to be replaced by "joined-up thinking" where working together to find common solutions offered a more optimistic scenario in which change could more readily come about. The section on community safety as a contested project brings out the difficulties which this shift in policy inevitably entailed. Individual organisations brought with them competing philosophies and objectives but more insidious were the disparities in power and government support which meant certain agendas were given priority over others - the prevention of specified and more easily counted crimes; the push to link drug use and crime; the privatisation of security and a punitive overall approach to the law and order problem. Overlaying all these problems, numerous contributors in this volume point to the audit culture which has distorted the focus of policy and the delivery of services. They point too to the ever-increasing criminalisation of social policy, the failure of the Labour government in the Blair years to transform the crime agenda from its narrow focus on the reduction of crime to the wider concern of building a safe and secure environment for all.
Edited collections such as these are often read in a piecemeal fashion, dipped into for the chapter which is particularly relevant at the time, but I have benefited from reading this volume in its entirety. As each contribution furnishes the reader with a little more of the complete picture it is easier to see how the politics of community safety have become so narrowly focused once again around crime reduction and remain insensitive to the agendas of difference which its proponents initially set out to encompass. What is demonstrated throughout this collection is the slow build-up of a profound sense of distrust between government and the governed - distrust of young people certainly but also of local agendas, of cultures and perspectives which do not share the government's perspective and of those who challenge their normative frameworks.
In a different way Millie et al's report Anti-social behaviour strategies : finding a balance adds to this picture. It is written primarily for the non-academic sector and based on empirical work in three areas experiencing high levels of what has been termed "anti-social behaviour". The authors set out to examine how Anti-Social Behaviour Orders (ASBOs) have been used and how they are received by residents and criminal justice practitioners within their case-study neighbourhoods. It shows the three successive Labour governments, like those which preceded them, seeking simple solutions to complex problems, adopting a one size fits all approach to multiple problems which are played out in very different areas. However in this report Millie et al show the populist rhetoric of successive Labour governments in office to has been far more conservative than the popular opinion to which it is targeted and reflects the views of only a minority of the population affected. The residents of neighbourhoods which have been sorely affected by problem behaviours exhibit a range of responses which vary widely from those which follow from a crude crime reduction focus. They are informed by different narratives from the more conservative which emphasises a widespread decline in social and moral standards, to a concern that young people are becoming increasingly disengaged from society in general and sometimes their own families and networks of support. A third narrative is informed by a concern that children are being inappropriately labelled as troublesome, that children will always transgress boundaries but can grow and mature if allowed and helped to do so. Each of these perspectives suggests different solutions and the enforcement agenda implied by ASBOs is criticised by many as a blunt instrument which can be over-used and which may actually cause more social harm. There are calls to build communities' capacity to take action which is locally-nuanced and reflects the issues which are specific to the neighbourhood. Yet Millie et al conclude that the various government campaigns to tackle anti-social behaviour appeal only to the first, more conservative, narrative, and are "infused with a deep sense of pessimism about the scope for solutions of any sort, and in particular a well-entrenched cynicism about the likelihood of an effective response from local agencies" (2006 p.x). Again a mistrust of local people and local agencies is seen as driving a centrally determined and enforced policy agenda.
These two publications - an academic exploration of the community safety agenda of the last ten years and a more policy-focused report on anti-social behaviour strategies reveal a deeply pessimistic and cynical perspective which has come to dominate the New Labour project around crime, security and local community. I believe it was there from the beginning. I am reminded of the first meeting I attended to discuss the setting up of the new Crime and Disorder Partnerships across Manchester soon after the Crime and Disorder Act 1998 came into force. I left that meeting feeling particularly despondent. I went expecting to be able to talk about my own experience of building partnerships with local people and agencies over the previous 3 years, of listening to neighbourhood concerns and responding to local anxieties, of our strategies to include local organisations in decision-making and our attempts to reduce fear and promote community safety for all groups resident in and using the area. Instead I was told to listen and to implement the new strategy as it had been centrally determined. As these publications remind us, there has been little room for manoeuvre in community safety work in the past ten years. The spaces which were opened up in the years before New Labour came into office have closed about us again in a very tight security strategy of enforcement and centrally-determined crime reduction targets which it is increasingly difficult to breach. This strategy seems more designed to secure Labour in office than to promote the safety and security of all British citizens.
References
Harding, A., Kyng, E., Perry, B. and Puglisi, M. (2002). Hulme: Ten Years On. Manchester City Council.
Dr Karen Evans
Senior Lecturer
School of Sociology and Social Policy
University of Liverpool

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Serious Delinquency: An Anthology Thomas J. Bernard (Editor)
Los Angeles: Roxbury Publishing Company, 2006

This is a collection of excerpts of books, articles and official government reports. The topics covered in this anthology are: "the historical background of juvenile justice systems"; the "nature and extent of juvenile offending"; "causes of delinquency and youth violence"; "juveniles and the police"; "juvenile courts"; "youthful offenders in criminal court"; "juvenile corrections"; "what works? Prevention and rehabilitation"; "juvenile justice and specific groups"; and "juvenile justice in the future".
This is an extremely ambitious collection, seeking as it does to provide a "broad and deep" introduction to the issues surrounding youth offending and youth justice. A very large range of topics are covered. The works in this collection are primarily concerned with empirical evidence, and less focussed on criminological theory.
Areas of particular interest are the sections about the causes and risk factors that area associated with youth offending. These chapters will give new students of youth offending an excellent round up of the major American longitudinal studies. Also very good are the chapters concerning youth contact with the police and juvenile justice systems. Although more attention could be paid to relevant theoretical considerations, all the key areas for concern are highlighted.
The layout of the book may be slightly grating to an experienced academic audience that is familiar with more sober typesetting, but this book is divided into very manageable chunks for less experienced readers. Each chapter is prefaced by an introductory note from the editor, summarising the key points, and signposting the excerpt.
The chapters are all very short, providing the headline facts about each topic. At times there is insufficient depth to enable true understanding, but for inexperienced students of youth offending this should provide an excellent introduction. At times the tone can be a little condescending, defining basic academic terms, whilst at others the use of more colloquial terms obscures the true meaning.
Only three quarters of the chapters have references included, and at times writers are mentioned but not referenced. Unfortunately this means that a student new to the topic may have difficulty choosing how to conduct further study. It would have been useful for the editor to have provided tailored suggestions for further reading.
This book would be of most use for those readers who are unfamiliar with the American juvenile justice system. The early chapters of this anthology do an excellent job of identifying the trends in juvenile justice across the United States; no mean feat when the various state systems are so disparate. Those readers who require a more in depth consideration of specific topics will still find this book useful as an introduction and overview, and will do well to go on to read the full versions of the articles included here.
Lucy Holmes, University of Surrey
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Penal Populism by John Pratt, 2007, London: Routledge.
In this timely book, Pratt delivers a robust interpretation of the prison boom occurring not only in the US but also in other Western countries. Further pointing out that the increased reliance on imprisonment occurs independently of dropping crime rates, Pratt looks to other spheres of society contributing to what is aptly described as penal populism. The analysis sorts through some rather complex interplay between instrumental and expressive punishments so as to capture the trend toward "democratizing" punishment. As ontological insecurity spreads, anxieties over crime and various types of anti-social behavior become sites where "doing something" manifest in tough prison policy. The belief that citizens can develop better solutions for crime control than state bureaucrats is fueled by a political culture that panders to popular discourse embodied in grass-root social movements and media outlets, including tabloid journalism and talk-back radio.
The book begins with an overview of populism, a form of politics aimed to appeal to people who feel that their views and interests have been left out of the debate over governance. Penal populism narrows those cries for greater security as "mad as hell" citizens demand harsh punishments for criminals perceived as being habitual and particularly menacing. Consequently, public referendums such California's three-strikes initiative serve as expressions of punishment, contoured along lines of a new rationality boasting a "prison works" philosophy. From that juncture, Pratt explores the underlying causes of penal populism, notably a declining trust in politicians and the political process. Those conditions give rise to cynical politicians willing and able to capitalize on the thirst for punishment continuously echoed in crime news. With an expanding technology that produces a 24-hour news cycle, there is no shortage of proof that we live in a "dangerous" world; compounding matters, criminal justice bureaucrats and liberal judges simply "don't get it." Therefore, standard crime statistics (which actually document drops in criminal offenses) get tossed out and replaced with emotional obsessions over high profile (child) victims who become memorialized and sloganized.
Pratt transcends descriptive accounts by offering an array of theoretical considerations, such as perspectives drawing on risk and moral panic. Similarly, he visits the current conversation over just deserts, managerialism, and restorative justice. As penal populism resembles a runaway train barreling over everything in its path, Pratt insists it is not inevitable. There are many social and political barriers that serve as checks against penal populism; resistance is found in Canada, Germany, and Finland where such campaigns have yet to reach a critical mass. In that sense, the book's audience is left with some hope that enlightened society not completely doomed. Penal Populism is a compact work that promises to appeal to scholars and students, graduate and undergraduate alike. Whereas one might have hoped for some discussion on the impact that the war on terrorism is having on penal policies (e.g., control orders, proposals for lengthy periods of detention without charge), the overall thrust of the book contributes significantly our understanding of how public frustration over insecurity is channeled into matters of criminal justice.

Michael Welch
Professor
Rutgers University

Visiting Fellow
Centre for the Study of Human Rights
London School of Economics

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Pino, Natham and Wiatrowski, Michael, (eds), Democratic Policing in Transitional and Developing Countries, Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006, 264 pages, hardback £55.00.
A timely and ambitious book, articulating a position that democratic approaches to policing both rely upon and contribute to freedom and democracy in the wider society. The US-based editors contribute an introduction, four scene-setting chapters and two further chapters - leaving about one third of the volume for other contributors, who discuss Iraq, South Africa, Northern Ireland, Kazakhstan and the role of the police. No big surprises but many readers will find the policy stance broadly agreeable and the opportunity to read across some national approaches quite stimulating.
The initial chapters range over a wide literature on development as well as security. Chapter 1 examines theories of modernisation, uneven development and dependency, suggesting (in line with much current criminology) that increases in inequality and in the quantity of goods in circulation create the conditions and motivations for crime. The World Bank and IMF are roundly criticised, structural adjustment programmes being seen as creating additional difficulties for countries instead of helping them. This chapter is something of a literature review - cited sources 'note', 'criticise', 'go on to argue', and so on, and it is not always easy to see the links to policing in the narrower sense. A few of the views put forward are surprising, for example the editors refer to 'the relatively new field of women's studies' and they claim that 'The challenge of dealing with citizen-security issues has been imposed on the human-rights movement rather than something sought by the movement'. Some readers might feel that was wrong - or might wonder what or who is the intended target of such remarks. Nevertheless, many will agree with the editors that researchers need to grapple with what the police should do as well as with what they should not do.
Chapter 2 comes to policing in the US and it is here that the editors begin to find their feet. Then in chapter 3 they set out their beliefs in terms of some principles of democratic policing, extolling community orientated policing within a commitment to social and economic justice. Policing must move beyond mere law enforcement, to become an exemplar of democratic and accountable working and thus a driver for broader change. Alderson, Brogden, Jones and Newburn and other landmarks are noted. There is an emphasis on solution-orientated police behaviours, in negotiation with 'residents' and in the context of respect for human rights. However at this stage it is not entirely clear how the high level of police discretion implied can be squared with residual corruption, political partiality and governance issues. With chapter 4 by the same writers, we come to implementation issues, painted in broad brush terms.
One hundred and thirty pages into the book, the editors give way for their contributors. Rehan Mullick and Rabia Nusrat's chapter on policy and policing in Iraq critically refers to a re-establishment of imperialism in what once was part of the Ottoman Empire, motivated by US concerns over oil. The authors move from Saddam Hussein's rise and rule, to the post-invasion situation, the CPA and Paul Bremer, without however much attention being paid to pre-invasion sanctions and their consequences for the economy and society (see for example the work of Peter Andreas). Public policing is seen as being unable to take root in the dire security situation and as being sidelined and undermined by various forms of private policing.
In a more tightly edited work, that issue of private policing in Iraq could have been brought into confrontation with the following chapter. Here Robert Shanafelt draws upon the South African situation. He describes a displacement of the indigenous population from positions of respect, a 'spiralling helix' of cynicism, crime and violence, and the steps taken by the country to extract itself from that history.
The next chapter by Steven Engel turns to Northern Ireland, in which context police reform is described as growing directly out of the peace process and as a servant of human rights. The Patten Report is drawn upon and the commentaries of Clifford Shearing, Clive Walker ('post-sovereignty policing') and others are referred to.
Edward Snajdar's contribution on US-funded training against domestic violence in Kazakhstan traces developments in this authoritarianly governed country and notes the 'ideological ambiguity' of moves to tackle domestic violence. The issue is positioned between (ex-)Soviet justice and (neo-)civil society in the western sense, with local NGOs and a US university in support. The training described is for police officers who might, for example, intervene in a situation of violence against women by temporally detaining men, thus giving women a period in which to figure out what to do (with the support of NGOs). The author observes that police officers begin to see NGOs as partners and that this represents a break with the past and may open up channels of accountability to stakeholders other than the state.
In the penultimate edited chapter, Heath Grant, Jane Grabias and Roy Godson offer a model of police education (as distinct from law enforcement training) in terms of knowledge, attitudes and skills about rule of law. The book then concludes with a reprise by the editors, touching upon points made in the edited chapters. This would have made a good introduction to the book. Further case studies would have been welcome. This is an important field and a variety of inputs must be welcomed. Comparisons may be made with David Bailey's 'Changing the Guard' (OUP, 2006; reviewed December 2006 by Randy Lippert in Law and Society Review). One lingering doubt may be whether any model of 'export' of policing models, standards and experts may have missed its historical moment.
Nicholas Dorn, Cardiff University and Erasmus University Rotterdam
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Incivilities: Regulating Offensive Behaviour, Andrew von Hirsch and A.P. Simester (eds.) (2006), Oxford and Portland Oregon: Hart Publishing.
There are many things that offend me, however I would not like to live in a society where my beliefs on acceptability are not challenged, where I am not offended. This is a standard liberal take on modern living and, one would hope, has some sway in most liberally-leaning democracies. As Paul Roberts states in Chapter one of this volume, "…one should seriously entertain the possibility that to be offended from time to time, even wrongfully offended, might be socially beneficial and healthy for personal growth and well-being" (p19). In putting this book together, Andrew von Hirsch and AP Simester have focused on an important area for research - one that extends beyond penal theory and ethics to wider philosophical, jurisprudential and criminological study. Quite simply, what actions or speech can be regarded as uncivil or offensive, to the extent that they necessitate criminalisation or regulation? The volume covers some fundamental questions for criminologists - that perhaps do not get asked as often as they might - regarding wrongfulness, intent, harm, injury, disgust and, of course, offence. The focus is on incivility and, drawing on recent policy and politics in the UK, anti-social behaviour; yet many of the book's discussions have a broader impact.
The book is an edited volume that had its origins in two colloquia held in Cambridge in 2002 and 2003. Ten chapters are provided by an interesting mix of criminologists, legal philosophers and lawyers covering such delights as, "How offensive can you get?" (Duff and Marshall, Chapter 2), "Disgust: Metaphysical and empirical speculations" (Husak, Chapter 3) and "'No spitting': Regulation of offensive behaviour…" (Burney, Chapter 8). Some of the chapters are on the lengthy side. For instance, a very detailed introduction is provided by Roberts in Chapter 1 and, at 56 pages, it would have benefited from tighter editorial control. Nonetheless, I found his arguments fascinating and intelligent (and certainly thorough). One minor query, in talking about what is, or is not, morally wrong to criticise (p16), I'm not sure religion comes under the umbrella of "unchosen and permanent characteristics" in the same way as, for example, skin colour. That said, these are important questions to consider. In Chapter 2 Duff and Marshall focus on the criminalisation of offensiveness. They make some useful observations, especially relating to the use of contracts in the UK, for instance the Acceptable Behaviour Contract (ABC). Their point that Anti-Social Behaviour Orders (or ASBOs) are "morally unacceptable" (p88) could be over-stating it however. For Chapter 3 Douglas Husak asks the question, has offensiveness itself increased? This is something that is not easy to answer, although being a Professor of Philosophy, Husak makes some interesting speculations. I struggled in places, but this was perhaps my lack of philosophical nouse, rather than the fault of the author. One thing is clear, reading this book has confirmed the benefits of reading beyond the usual criminology fare - how else would I have discovered "the metaphysics of disgustingness"? (p96)
In Chapter 4 von Hirsch and Simester provide some principles for penalising offensive behaviour, including insulting conduct, infringement of anonymity in public spaces, pre-emptive public behaviour, exhibitionism and sensory affront, along with other "multifarious grounds for offence" (pp120-122). This is a useful discussion of ideas, and the notion that people have a "right to be left alone" (p121) is an attractive one, especially in some of my grumpier moments. Ways of mediating - or perhaps avoiding - offence are suggested, including an interesting account of "social tolerance".
Like many other contributors, Tatjana Hörnle relates her work in Chapter 5 to Feinburg's study of the moral limits to criminal law. Hörnle brings a useful German perspective and relates discussion of criminalisation to the violation of Rechtsgut or legal good (p134). In Chapter 6 John Tasioulas offers some shared features of crimes of offence: they are wrongful; they are experienced (actually or threatened); and they occur in public rather than private space (pp150-151). Moral significance and context are also considered. For the British reader Chapter 7 by Simester and von Hirsch is of particular interest as it covers the 'two-step prohibition' - a high profile example of which is the ASBO. Such orders are 'two-step' in that they are civil remedies in the first instance designed to restrict future behaviour; however the breach of an order is criminal and can lead to a prison sentence. The attractiveness of such an approach is discussed, along with some legal problems, for instance whether such orders are prohibitive or act as a penalty, and whether they come with adequate safeguards.
The following chapter by Elizabeth Burney starts by giving an interesting account of how the same behaviour - in this case spitting - can be acceptable or offensive to the point of being criminal, depending on context and cultural norms. Burney provides a very readable and useful historical account of the regulation of offensive behaviour in England and Wales. Examples are provided from the fourteenth century through to what she calls the "new wave of behaviour control" under New Labour (p214). In Chapter 9 Bryan Tuner considers the relevance of social capital and trust to discussions of offence, and the final word is offered by Tony Bottoms (Chapter 10) who offers empirically-based advice for policy for engendering social order in public places. This draws heavily from recent work in the UK on Reassurance Policing and the extensive North American literature on incivilities and "Broken Windows".
For a book about offence I would like to have seen more on humour. Also, as much of the content is based on UK experiences, reference to the current "Respect" agenda would have been interesting. That said, the writing largely pre-dates these developments. There is some obvious overlap between chapters, although this isn't necessarily a problem as the contributors cover differing perspectives. It is a pretty serious book and not for the faint hearted. However, it certainly advances discussion on incivility and offence and, for those with an interest in questioning standard limits of acceptable behaviour, and the criminalisation of incivilities and anti-social behaviour, it is a very well written, interesting and useful volume.
Andrew Millie, Lecturer in Criminology and Social Policy, Department of Social Sciences, Loughborough University.
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Restorative Justice in Prisons - A Guide to Making it Happen, Edger, K., & Newell, T.,Waterside Press, (2006)
Prisons and Restorative Justice do not have to be polar opposites! It is an argument often missed, but what strikes you as you read through this text is the sheer simplicity with which Edger and Newell have captured the changes that are so apparently needed in the prison system today. By asking the question, are prisons a punishment, or there to provide punishment, they have captured much of the argument that exists and divides many of the staff, policy makers and general public alike. As the highest tariff punishment, prisons have failed to address the needs of offenders, the victims and the wider community, because of their success in punishing offenders. This book offers the opportunity to make the changes needed to protect society, whilst supporting both the victim and offender.
That said, I am not convinced by the term 'healing' although we could be getting into semantics. Crime (and therefore victims of crime), as a social construct, surely can not be cured, is a healing process the best way to describe the events we seek to undertake to 'repair' the damage of offending, or to 'restore' the individual.
In a similar way, I am surprised that with the criminal justice system moving in the direction that it has, more has not been said about the role and ideal of NOMs (National Offender Management service). Surely a single service which seeks to provide the offender with seem-less and consistent supervision, from sentence, through custody and back into the community, would have warranted some discussion. NOMs (as a service), has the potential to address the needs of both the offender and the victim, it could provide the opportunity for victim empathy work to begin in prisons and continue once they have returned to the community. It could empower the victim, through active involvement and redress the imbalance that Edger and Newell identify.
Finally, the book represents the needs of the prison system, the offender and the victim very well, and clearly underlines the fact that the 'healing' process needs to begin early on in the sentence. However, it neglects to reflect upon the fact that a large proportion of known offenders are also, by definition of their social position, upbringing, level of (lack of) education, poor employment opportunities and/or of insufficient housing, victims of crime as well (See for instance, Garland, 2001; and Pettit & Western, 2004).
However, the clarity and basis of argument makes this a book that I would recommend. Indeed, I have. It gives a brilliant and fascinating insight into restorative justice and just how it may work in an institutional setting, shy of change but, in desperate need of change.
Andy Bain, Institution of Criminal Justice Studies, University of Portsmouth
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Imagining Security, Wood, Jennifer & Shearing, Clifford (2007),Cullompton: Willan.
Wood and Shearing assert that in order to understand how security will be governed in the future we must first begin to imagine what that security will be like. We must also attempt to imagine in what way that security will be governed. They argue that over time different people in a society will have varying levels of influence over the governance of security. In light of this, it is important, where possible, to take steps now to prevent or ameliorate any foreseeable differences in the power controlling governance. The reason for this is to prevent a widening of the gap in individual access to suitable control over security.
The book argues for an understanding of power relations based on a concept of nodal governance. Nodal governance rejects the 'Hobbesian leviathan' idea of top down state power as a description of how governance, and particularly the governance of security, operates. In contrast to this, nodal governance sees power relations as stemming from a large and disparate group of 'nodes' - defined as formal or informal institutional bodies - each exercising varying degrees of power with differerent levels of effectiveness. This 'nodal governance' perspective allows us to look at the governance of security as a network of power relations where each node attempts to use what capital (social, economic, cultural, political etc.) it can in order to provide security and protect its interests.
In looking at the concept of security, the book considers two types of security, that which is provided by the public police and the more general, macro-level concept of human security.
By taking a historical perspective on the development of public policing over the past 25 years, the differing concepts of security and how to provide it are unpicked and exposed. This analysis describes the developments in policing not as leaps or paradigm shifts, but as 'waves' of change that are influenced by various nodes as they interact with each other, driving innovation. Each innovation arrives in a 'back and forth manner' rather than a linear fashion.
'Human security' is a broader type of security, a security for all humanity, the provision and governance of which demands the co-operation of many different nodes. The challenges of human security are vast (be they environmental problems, 'new wars', human rights abuses or economic destitution) therefore finding a meaningful solution to addressing these challenges will be highly complex.
A nodal governance view of both the policing and human security problems sees a widening gap in the amount of power different stakeholders within nodes can bring to bear on the provision and control of these forms of security. The authors provide some tentative potential techniques for those within weaker nodes to address the imbalance.
It is clear that the governance of security in the future will be radically different from how it operates now and has functioned in the recent past. This book begins the difficult process of understanding the potential opportunities and pitfalls that those changes will bring.
James Mehigan, Open University
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Reshaping probation and prisons. The new offender management framework. Researching Criminal Justice Series. Hough, M., Allen, R. and Padel, U. (Eds) The Policy Press. 2006.
In the year of the centenary of probation, with its focus on history, and the publication of the Handbook of Probation it would be easy to miss this slim volume. Yet eventually it might be judged to be one of the most important publications about the future of the probation and prison services. Published towards the end of last year, it consists of the six papers that formed the basis of discussion at a 2005 symposium about the National Offender Management Service (NOMS). Like everything being written about this subject at a time when the Home Office has been split into two and Prime Ministers and Home Secretaries come and go like football managers at the end of a season, it is inevitably out of date by the time it is read. It would be a pity if that distracted us from reflection on its key messages.
In his introduction, Mike Hough highlights the four most important issues raised by the papers, namely, consumerism, accountability, values, and the market approach. In their different but consistently salutary ways, each of the contributors addresses these issues and their ramifications for the future of NOMS and thereby the probation and prison services. A short review like this renders detailed analysis impossible, so instead I will provide some tasters that hopefully will stimulate the interested to delve deeper. Encouragingly in this increasingly punitive culture, every contribution is unashamedly pro rehabilitation (and where possible, in the community). John Raine urges a change in the habits and culture of the bench; Mike Maguire and Peter Raynor support with evidence (rather than nostalgia for a golden age) the importance of the relational process in rehabilitative work; Carol Hedderman charges NOMS with the task of re-establishing trust in What Works; Mike Nellis challenges the technophobes among us and establishes the case for cautious engagement with techno-correctional innovation; Alison Liebling calls for reflective scrutiny of the moral values and practice of the public and private sector; and David Faulkner sets out the case for the re-introduction of accountability at the local as well as the national level.
Unusually, for a volume based on papers presented at a conference or symposium, this retains its cohesiveness as each of the contributions complements the others and provides the building blocks to the most comprehensive and potent argument against the full exposure of probation to market place reforms I have read. The tasters were meant for the converted and I hope they read this book. Policy makers should too, that is if they are interested in an effective, civilised criminal justice system.
Maurice Vanstone, Reader in Criminal Justice and Criminology, Department of Applied Social Sciences, Swansea University.
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Murder and Society Morrall, Peter. Chichester: Wiley 2006
In an unexpectedly frank and reflexive introduction Peter Morrall describes his book as a polemic and in many ways it has the accessible and journalistic ambience that polemicism engenders without ever losing its academic rigour. Steering away from the customary examination of individual on individual interpersonal murder events, Morrall exposes the extent of state sanctioned and politically motivated murder, highlighting that society and criminologists have a somewhat myopic view of the problem of homicide.
Morrall poses five questions which reflect the structure of the book; what is murder, who commits murder, why commit murder, why is it so devastating and why do we find it so fascinating? His answers to these questions highlight its fluid and chameleon like qualities.
We all believe we know what a murder is, but the truth is far more complex. Morrall notes that defining murder is dependent on who is doing the defining and in which historical or cultural context that defining is taking place. This reflects Innes' (2002) findings which show that in the prosecution and investigation of murder, police construct narratives to make sense of the events and provide a plausible story for the jury. Narrative construction in this context relies on moral discourses that will categorise both the killer and the killed, with their position on a continuum of moral culpability designating the action as a murder or not. In the context of this ambiguous and chaotic framework for categorising an action as murder, Morrall explores the impacts of such violence on society.
The most novel aspect is the examination of primary, secondary and tertiary victimisation - an aspect of homicide given less scrutiny and consideration than the exploits of the offending protagonists. His own anger and frustration directs the text in a refreshingly fearless way, reminding us of the harm caused by such acts of violence not only to the victim and the immediate family but to wider society. Morrall depicts a society that condones some homicides whilst virulently decrying others, a society which reveals in those choices its biases and power relations. In celebrating the actions of some killers whilst executing others and re inventing convicted killers as respected leaders of States, deeply held moral schemas are revealed which are uncomfortable and damaging.
This book thus represents a damning but hopeful examination of human societies, a deep and insightful analysis of homicide that strips away the mystique and celebrity and for once focuses on the victims - primary, secondary and tertiary, in a way that does not memorialise, but empowers and dignifies whilst raising crucial questions about our widespread complacency to the violence that pervades our society.
Jane Monckton-Smith University of Southampton
References:
Innes, M. (2002) Police Homicide Investigations. The British Journal of Criminology v42 n4 Autumn 2002 p.669 - 688

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The War on Terrorism and the Rule of Law by Richard M. Pious, 2006, Los Angeles, California: Roxbury Publishing Company.
At first glance The War on Terrorism and the Rule of Law by Richard M. Pious, appears to be a standard collection of US government memos addressing various features the prevailing counter-terrorism strategies launched since the attacks of September 11th. A closer look, however, shows more than mere official jargon about implementing policies and practices governing homeland security, surveillance, indefinite detention, unlawful enemy combatants, interrogation of terror suspects (torture!), and military tribunals. In often chilling detail, the volume provides a glimpse into the inner workings of the Bush administration as it revamps not only its counter-terrorism campaign but also reconfigures the nature of executive power in a post-9/11 America. Unless one is closely tied to the White House, those developments should not be viewed as good news. Indeed, recent socio-legal transformations provide greater evidence that the state of emergency surfacing since September 11th has become the new working paradigm for the US government.
This book adds to the ongoing dialogue on power and the war on terror in which the sound and sophisticated voices of Richard V. Ericson, Judith Butler, and Giorgio Agamben resonate. Although to be fair, this book should not be compared those scholarly works that engage in the theoretical discourse on power, sovereignty, and governmentality. Nevertheless, The War on Terrorism and the Rule of Law can serve as a useful text for undergraduate and graduate students studying counter-terrorism; moreover, researchers will benefit from this volume for it can provide quick reference to specific legal and administrative shifts in US domestic and foreign policies. Whereas some of the narrative that introduces each chapter could be improved by contextualizing the subject within key events and controversies, the overall task is achieved. That is, it presents a catalogue of major legal and administrative issues that should remain at the center of public concern over how the US government continues to undermine established democratic institutions, all in the name of national security and the state of emergency.
Michael Welch
Rutgers University

Visiting Fellow
Centre for the Study of Human Rights
London School of Economics

retrowelch@aol.com
www.professormichaelwelch.com

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Humane Prisons. Jones, David (editor) (2006, Oxford: Radcliffe).
At least the foreseeable future, prisons along with all their problems are here to stay. Whereas there is considerable merit in the campaigns to downsize the use of incarceration, it is important that reformers and human rights advocates not forget those persons already confined. Similarly, pressing issues surrounding harsh conditions of confinement, institutional violence, and the lack of meaningful programs should continue to receive close and critical scrutiny. In Humane Prisons, David Jones, assembles an impressive and diverse collective of prison experts who offer compelling analyses of institutional corrections, ranging from the psychopathological considerations of prison systems to independent inspections. The volume benefits from its multi-layered approach crossing psychology, sociology, clinical studies, and policy implementation.
A prominent theme in Humane Prisons is the realization that many of those locked behind bars need the kind of therapeutic programs and services that many prison systems simply cannot deliver. In his foreword to the book, Craig Haney sets the tone, noting: "The United States, it could be argued, played a key role in leading the rest of the world down this pessimistic path toward a dark place in the history of corrections" (p. vii). Haney goes on to cite Feeley and Simon's characterization of modern incarceration as a form of "waste management" rather than as an apparatus committed to facilitating the integration of lawbreakers back into the community. In the face of the prevailing discourse on security, the contributors to the book explain convincingly that there is a better way to deal with prisoners, especially given the reality that most of them will ultimately be released.
Without some form of humane treatment while incarcerated, many prisoners are destined to become debilitated rather than rehabilitated, or what some radical-thinking penologists might call the state-sponsored deterioration of human beings.
Even though the chapters carry the potential for theorizing about the function of prisons in late modern society, the focus and content of the readings remain squarely on specific issues and developments pertaining to practice and policy. For that reason, the book reaches an audience of educated practitioners and aspiring professionals who might be giving thought to a career in corrections. Compared to some texts designed to project the "joys" of working in the criminal justice system, Humane Prisons presents a no-nonsense introduction to institutional corrections. By doing so, the book offers both a daunting glimpse into prisons as well as an inspiring outlook for those with a strong human rights orientation who believe that there is much work to be done inside what some seasoned prison workers sarcastically call "The Gray Bar Hotel."
Michael Welch
Professor
Rutgers University

Visiting Fellow
Centre for the Study of Human Rights
London School of Economics
[retrowelch@aol.com]
[www.professormichaelwelch.com]

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Sex Work Now. Campbell, R & O'Neill M (Editors): Willan 2006
This book pulls together various ideologies, policies, theories and contemporary issues surrounding the sex industry.
Chapter One highlights the problematic area of policing prostitution and related policies and legislation targeting prostitutes and clients was considered.
Chapter Two deals with conflicts arising residential areas where prostitutes are situated. Highlighting the need for co-operation, consultation, etc. More contributions from the NHS/other agencies and workers (though the Joseph Rowntree Foundation report was referred to for workers' views) would have been more helpful.
Chapter Three focuses on zoning and the different terminology as well as the comparisons between UK and Dutch/German zones; specifically dealing with the problems and successes of each jurisdiction's zoning policies.
Chapter Four deals with the problem of viewing all sex workers as victims or immoral outcasts (e.g. workers who willingly/legitimately sell services via the internet, indoors, etc). Sanders vents her frustration over policymakers' lack of understanding on the difference between victims of sexual coercion and those wanting to work in the industry.
Chapter Five focuses on trafficking/migration and informs the reader of the difference. Migrants may be willing to cross borders, not only those who are exploited. Problems of researching this area are dealt with also.
Chapter Six informs of the problems/risks associated with sex work (e.g. society's views that sex workers are less worthy of respect, assistance/protection from violence. Whether murder and violence of sex workers is predicated on legislative/social constraints also examined; the chapter raises important issues which policymakers ought to consider carefully.
Chapter Seven gives an insight into the lives of street workers and drug use and the connection therein which is not always interrelated.
Chapter Eight focuses on child prostitution or children abused through prostitution. Agencies' failure to fully understand the situation as well as the lack of inter-agency co-ordination is considered. Pearce discusses how victims may not fit into a [usually stringently defined] description; thus agencies may be more inclined to prosecute, rather than protect, those they encounter.
Chapter Nine gives insight into why men visit sex workers plus the numbers of men who use their services and thus are subject to criminalisation. The chapter also clarifies that 'normal' and not 'deviant' men use sex workers.
Chapter Ten details the problem of sex workers' interaction with support agencies and the lack of available funding. Support agencies need to interact with the criminal justice system. Criminalisation means many workers are unable/unwilling to contact agencies perceived to be connected to (or worse, in cahoots with) those which prosecute or persecute them.
Chapter Eleven focuses on the unionisation of sex workers; mention is made of the difficulty for those who wish to join and retain anonymity due to stigma and the wish to gain rights equivalent to those in society.
The book is insightful, a little repetitious at times, but important for those interested in studying the field of sex work and the policies related thereto.
Maria L. Christou, Independent Criminologist
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Only Pictures? Therapeutic work with Internet Sex Offenders Ethel Quayle et al. (2006)
Child sexual abuse is not a new phenomenon, on the contrary it has very deep and antique roots. However, with the event of new technologies, particularly the Internet, this problem seem to have risen exponentially. The Internet has created new opportunities for people with the same sexual inclinations to exchange information immediately, effectively and, most of the times, anonymously.
So, are we now left with an old crime in a new technology? And, if this is the case, how do we deal with this problem and its perpetrators?
There is a substantial and growing literature on the problem of child sexual abuse. However, one important type of child sexual abuse - that which takes place on and via the Internet- remains under-researched. With this book, Quayle et al. have contributed to fill some of the significant gaps existing in the literature.
The structure of the book is in nine chapters. Chapters one and two provide clear and valuable definitions of online offending (focusing particularly on child abuse images) and a background to the literature on sex offending and on the role of cognitive behavioural therapy for sex offenders. Chapter three provides a model of offending behaviour, relating to child abuse images and the Internet, which might enable offenders to gain some insight into their behaviour in terms of how they fit (or do not fit) the model (page 27). It is in this chapter that the authors introduce the sentencing guidelines of the nature of the indecent material (from level 1 to 5) and the extent of the offender's involvement with these levels of indecent material.
Attention is also paid to child victims depicted in the pictures (chapter 5). The authors recognise that although there is not empirical knowledge of the implication of child abuse images on the children, it is important to confront the offender with the reality of the images as evidence of abusive relationships. The issue of fantasy trough viewing indecent images and whether this may escalate to abuse in also discussed and evaluated (chapter six). In doing so, the authors provide the reader with different theories on the cycle of abuse and techniques for dealing with abusive fantasies. They also offer an analytical review of the literature, which relates to ideas of community and the Internet, to enhance the understanding of why some people with a sexual interest in children may use the Internet as a tool for sexual abuse. The authors' concluding notes emphasise the importance of taking a dynamic perspective about offending behaviour and noting that individuals operate and react differently to offending contexts.
"Only pictures? Therapeutic Work with Internet Sex Offenders" is, without a doubt, a crucial and topical book. It represents a significant tool to help practitioners to improve therapeutic techniques with online offenders and to reach effective management of this ever increasing problem 'cyber child sexual abuse'. This book is also a valuable source for academics who are working towards the development of research in this complex arena.
Elena Martellozzo (University of Westminster)
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International Approaches to Prostitution: Law and policy in Europe and Asia Geetanjali Gangoli and Nicole Westmarland (Editors)Bristol: The Policy Press, 2006
The aim of this book is to contextualise approaches to prostitution in England and Wales, France, Sweden, Moldova, India, Pakistan, Taiwan and Thailand. Unusually this book contains chapters by authors who take different views of prostitution, belonging variously to the 'prostitution as abuse' and 'prostitution as work' schools. The editors deliberately seek to avoid making moral judgement; they aim to avoid 'dictating' their views, and rather to represent a range of perspectives.
Each chapter provides a summary of historical development and current legislation, and discussion of 'Key Issues Faced'. The recommended further reading at the end of each chapter gives an excellent first step into the specific literature of each country. This book provides, however, a summary of policies and debates in the studied countries, rather than an overview of best practice. The moral stances of the authors also cloud the issues slightly, but also expose the reader to the range of views held, which few books on this subject achieve in this way.
The choice of countries is excellent, particularly as some of the countries included have not been in the spotlight of international research into prostitution. However, obvious omissions are the Netherlands and Australia, which feature in many international studies because of the fact that those countries have legalised prostitution. The omission of any mention of Scotland from the chapter on countries in the United Kingdom also seems rather odd, given that the book is published in Britain, and prostitution has recently been debated at length by the devolved Scottish Parliament.
Despite these omission, this book will be useful to any student of international approaches to prostitution, and the inclusion of less studied countries will be of enormous value. It is particularly rare in British books about prostitution to find Asian countries individually considered in so much detail.
One thing that this book demonstrates effectively is how much national context influences public opinion and legislation, something which is often overlooked in books solely about prostitution in Britain. Importantly, and also unusually, there is consideration of how international laws and guidelines have an impact in different countries.
The book would benefit from a final chapter to offer overarching conclusions. It would also be helpful to have some acknowledgement of other countries, such as the Netherlands and Australia. This book will be of interest to readers from a range of disciplines spanning, as does the topic of prostitution, criminology, social policy, politics, gender studies, sociology, criminal justice, employment and poverty studies, among others. For anyone studying prostitution in any of the countries included this book would provide an excellent and up to date summary of the debate and current situation. However, care must be taken by the reader to disentangle the views and approach of the author from the presiding views in the countries. Overall, this is an excellent overview of the countries included and, despite its shortcomings, will provide a very useful resource for anyone studying prostitution from any perspective.
Lucy Holmes, University of Surrey
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Plural Policing - the Mixed Economy of Visible Patrols in England and Wales, Crawford A, Lister S, Blackburn S and Burnett J, The Policy Press, 2005.
That the delivery of police services throughout England and Wales has undergone dramatic changes in the last decade or so cannot be challenged. The fragmentation of police activity has been commented upon by several authors in the field of policing, (See Newburn 2003; McLaughlin 2007 for an analysis of this perspective). This present volume, based upon field research carried out by the authors, examines these developments, exploring the relationships between public and private providers of policing. Based upon a detailed analysis of six case studies it examines the role of community support officers, wardens and private security guards and explores perceptions regarding the way in which public and quasi public places are policed.
The work highlights the increasingly important input of the commercial sector into the world of policing, a fact often not acknowledged when considering the extended policing family. This is reinforced by the authors' use of the term 'mixed economy of policing' which causes the reader to consider the impact of commercial developments within the world of policing.
The key recommendations of the work include consideration of the way in which plural policing is delivered; the introduction of regional policing boards to provide regulation and coordination of delivery of police services; a greater interaction between Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnerships and the commercial sector; and in general more cooperation between all those agencies involved in plural policing.
Not surprisingly, the work is extensively referenced with many Home Office publications and whilst useful, these documents however, do not provide a critical platform.
Chapter three, which discusses strategies and styles of policing is a stimulating and informative section of the work, including sections on promoting community cohesion and the often ignored (or so it would appear) community intelligence. Further, sections on the impact of public-private partnerships on the police and also the impact of the arrangement upon private security agencies are areas worthy of deeper exploration. In the main, organisational problems were highlighted, and perhaps this area would have benefited from a more detailed discussion regarding the impact of the occupational cub-culture of the police organisation (see Reiner 2000 for example) upon such plural policing teams.
Overall, this is an important study that adds to our knowledge of changes that are occurring within the delivery of police services in England and Wales today and their impact upon the community. Any serious student of policing in England and Wales should really have a copy of this book on their shelf.
References
Newburn T (ed), 2003, The Handbook of Policing, Willan, Cullompton.
Mclaughlin E, (2007), The New Policing, Sage, London
Reiner R, (2000) The Politics of the Police, Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Dr Colin Rogers,
Centre for Police Sciences,
University of Glamorgan.

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A World View of Criminal Justice, Richard Vogler,Ashgate, 2005
This volume from the International and Comparative Criminal Justice Series benefits from having a single author with a consistent approach. Vogler asks whether it is overambitious to try to write about criminal justice around the world and apologizes for much of his work being from secondary sources. He has nothing to apologize for. This is an excellent book and one that should be on the shelves of all interested in the development of criminal processes throughout the world.
The start of the 21st century is a time of much closer working together of jurisdictions, as well as a constant interchange of ideas and taking over of aspects of criminal justice from one jurisdiction to another: eg
- The growth of supranational bodies such as the EU with the move towards common practices in human rights, use of evidence, international arrest warrants, etc.
- The work of such bodies as the World Bank and the UN in promoting best practices in criminal justice.
- The setting up of international tribunals of various kinds to deal with specific, usually post-conflict, situations
- A global increase in penality, starting from the USA, but now very widespread.
Vogler's book includes a large range of issues in historical and contemporary research in the five continents of the world in looking at developments in criminal procedure. It proposes a theory based upon the three traditional approaches: 'inquisitorial justice', adversarial justice' and 'popular justice'.
Part I looks at how the inquisitorial tradition has developed , originally in Europe, but now to be the dominant model in world criminal justice. Four essential characteristics are brought out: the hierarchical system of authority: the continuous bureaucratic process: the pressure brought upon defendants to achieve their co-operation: and the vital part played by rational deduction and forensic enquiry. Chapters of historical assessment are followed by discussion of 20th century regimes of terror: the Chinese Inquisitorial tradition and Theocratic Inquisition within Islam.
Part II looks at the Anglo-American Adversarial Tradition, starting with a historical account of what Vogler sees as the 'very strange birth' leading towards the current English system and leading to current writings that show a growing crisis of confidence in the adversarial methods in its homelands. He then moves on to what he calls the Great Due Process Revolution and shows how 'adversariality' has been growing in the jurisdictions of Western Europe, Latin America and the former Soviet bloc.
Part III considers 'Popular Justice' as the oldest and most widely distributed form of justice. Particular attention is given to the development of the 'English' Jury System, not only in England, but throughout the old British Empire and within Europe. Pen Portraits are then given of examples of direct popular participation in criminal justice: in Rwanda, Mozambique, South Africa and China.
Finally, Chapter 14, suggests some guiding principles of criminal justice reform that can be derived from considering previous experiences, rather than forever being driven into repeating past failures.
Chris Lewis, University of Portsmouth
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Theorizing Surveillance: The Panopticon and Beyond by David Lyon (Editor), 2006, Collompton, Devon, UK: Willan Publishing.
In this massive volume of original contributions from an array of scholars, David Lyon takes on the task of sorting through some of the most pressing and emerging issues facing surveillance studies. To be clear, he accomplishes that objective with considerable range and depth. As surveillance research seems to have moved away from the Orwellian perspective of government intrusion to a more "normalizing" function of surveillance, the contributors examine how Foucault's thoughts on the panopticon currently fit into today's world, and just as importantly how they don't fit. As many of the chapters suggest, what is fashionable to describe as "panoptic" is better understood as exhibition (e.g., contrived reality TV programmes). The works contained in this book therefore look to more suitable theoretical avenues to comprehend the nature of surveillance.
The book is divided into several parts: post-panoptic theory surveillance; space and time in surveillance theory; subjects and contexts of surveillance; and security, power, agency, and resistance. In his well-worded Introduction, Lyon reminds us that surveillance resides on the "soft" end of the panoptic spectrum, away from its "sharp" end situated in the prison. As that form of panopticism disperses it also diffuses into forms of surveillance that fade from Foucault's original insights on the subject; moreover, the panopticon as an institution and model for ordering society is itself trapped in the opposing gravitational fields of Christianity and the Enlightenment. In search of other theoretical clues, scholars are turning to the post-panoptic literature contoured along the ideas of Deleuze, Hardt and Negri, and Agamben. For example, in demonstrating the need for such ground-breaking, Kevin Haggerty embarks on a bold and convincing chapter titled "Tear Down The Walls: On Demolishing The Panopticon" in which he reviews the various "optics" and what theoreticians claim to be their particular significance. Still, Haggerty and several of the contributors are themselves not "anti-Foucault"; on the contrary, they value enourmously his writings while at the same find that some of the secondary literature has become alienating and bewildering.
As might be expected given the large number of chapters (15), readers can expect some overlap and repetition in some of the contributions, especially since they often share the same starting point. Additionally, the works seem to be geared toward those who are already up to speed on Foucauldian studies along with the post-panoptic thinkers. However, for readers who put forth an effort, this edited volume has tremendous pay-offs. It is ideal for academics (and graduate students) engaged in surveillance studies as well as criminologists, social scientists, and philosophers. Theorizing Surveillance makes an impressive mark in that fast growing literature.
Michael Welch
Rutgers University

Visiting Fellow
Centre for the Study of Human Rights
London School of Economics

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Deleuze and Environmental Damage, The Violence of the Text. Halsey, M., 2006 (Ashgate)
An Australian criminologist once informed me that real criminology involved evidence and statistics: not that, and I paraphrase, 'messy postmodernism'. At the outset I applaud Mark Halsey's book for challenging limiting views of what criminology may be, and for its willingness to engage with the theories of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari, two of poststructuralism's most notoriously difficult thinkers.
Despite the book's engagement with Continental philosophy, Deleuze and Environmental Damage, Violence of the Text, is particularly Australian. Australia has a thriving network of Deleuze scholars due to the translation and teaching work of leading Australian Deleuze academics during the 1990s. Additionally, rather than addressing global ecological conflicts, the book takes as its focus the indigenous, colonial, social, modern, governmental, 'green' and managerialist history of an area of Australian forest known as 'Goolengook'.
Deleuze, and Guattari's, project was nothing less than the overturning of the presuppositions of Western metaphysics. Deleuze (1925 - 1995) found refuge from the ceaseless reductionism of metaphysics (the apogee of which was, for Deleuze, the Hegelian dialectic) in the work of Spinoza, Nietzsche, Bergson and Heidegger; specifically, their attempts to think a metaphysics of 'difference'.
How well are the complexities of Deleuzian theory explained and utilised by Halsey in this book, and what relevance does it have to green criminology? A central contention of Deleuze's work was that it is not an innocent act to impose categories upon the world. When confronted with difference (the "acategorical"), if we fail to think in terms of a systematic philosophy of difference, thereby subordinating difference to identity in order to think it, then we subordinate difference to "resemblance (from the point of view of perception), to opposition (from the point of view of predicates), and to analogy (from the point of view of judgement). In other words, we do not think difference in itself" (Deleuze, 1968:1994, pp. xv-xvi). We remain within, according to Deleuze, a spectral legacy of metaphysics, the "image of thought" - or the fascistic subordination of difference to the same. This type of reasoning, argued Deleuze, dominated Modernity.
Following Deleuze, Halsey argues that if green criminology cannot, in response to environmental novelty, invent and apply new concepts to the socio-ecological then we fall prey to endless representation, "a preconceived schema dictating ahead of time what can and should be said and done (about environmental problems)" insufficient to our contemporary ecological, legal, regulatory, and criminological needs (p. 36).

Halsey contends that contemporary schools of ecophilosophy (liberal ecology, ecomarxism, ecofeminism, and social ecology) in this way fail because they remain imprisoned within a Modernist representational metaphysic, including the utopian ideal of being able to attain an enduring equilibrium between the binary opposition of humans and nature (aka steady-state theory, or 'sustainability' as resolution).
Applying the lexicon of Deleuze and Guattari (Chapters 5 to 7) - "image of thought", "plane of consistency" ("difference"), "schizoanalysis" (a ruthlessly processual conception of society and subjectivity), "assemblage", "becoming" (expressions of the will to power), the "molar", "molecular", "multiplicities", and "machinic thought" (processes of codification and decodification) - to Goolengook, Halsey attempts a conception of harm that proposes instead to recognize that all identities are effects of difference (rather than all difference as derivative from identity). The Real is the ceaseless, radically contingent, and violent micro-political struggles of language (exceeding labeling theory) as to what things may and may not mean, and the heterogeneity of "who or what is capable of being harmed from one moment (or politico-historical juncture) to the next" (p. 55), without resolution. Therefore, Halsey argues, the vicissitudes of Goolengook demonstrate that green criminology should not arrest force ("affect") by seeking essence - asking what something is - and reparation, but ask, in line with Spinozan ethics, what a "body", like Goolengook, can 'do' in these contingent dimensions of the actual.
Criticism may be levelled that Deleuze's Marxism, and the ability to validly read Deleuze in this way, are not addressed by Halsey's critique of ecomarxism. The figure of Hegel - Deleuze's nemesis - is also notably absent. However these are minor criticisms given the aims of the book. Halsey achieves a sustained and intelligible Deleuzian deconstruction of concepts relevant to green criminology, such as Nature, sustainability and environmental harm, and disrupts our beliefs, in whatever field they may be held, in ontological consistency.
I urge readers who would rather stick pins in themselves than glance at a work of poststructuralist criminology to read this book. Although the book contains some poststructuralist mannerisms that may irritate, Halsey's exposition is lucid and, I believe, valuable to law and criminology. A chapter or two of this book would be a welcome and provocative addition to environmental law courses, criminology courses, and, as a more accessible work than many, would be useful to any undergraduate courses examining Modernity.
Kristi Cooper
New South Wales Court of Appeal

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Getting out and staying out: results of the prisoner Resettlement Pathfinders, Clancy et al., (2006) The Policy Press: Bristol.
The appeal for the book will certainly resonate amongst policy-makers, practitioners responsible for prison and prisoners, and with all whose focus is on reducing re-offending. Academics and researchers who have an interest or involvement in evaluating policy, programmes and projects will also find the methodology and findings in the book most illuminating.
The book outlines Phase II , of the evaluation of what is one of the best known resettlement programmes attempted in the labour government era -the Resettlement Pathfinders' Programme. The implementation of the programme led either by probation or managed by voluntary sector organisations involved support, particularly for short-term offenders (those serving over 12 months but less than four years) that started in prison and continued post-imprisonment. It provided assessment, case management and integration of services with partner agencies to assist ex-prisoners with issues of accommodations, finance, employment, substance abuse, education, personal problems and difficulties. It also incorporated the FOR-'A Change' programme (Focus on Resettlement). "This is a short cognitive-motivational programme intended to equip prisoners with better thinking skills and greater motivation to make use of services, and a chance to improve their prospects of successful resettlement and desistance from crime" (p.4).
The subject of the evaluation reported in the book was the implementation of the programmes in only three of the original seven prisons (Hull, Lewes and Parc). It provides both a descriptive account and evaluation of performances of the second stage pathfinders using the same key outcomes measures of the first study, namely, continuity, attitude change and problem change. In addition they examined the post release experience of participants and was able to interview 71 out of 163 participants of the programme.
Three findings stand out for me from this study: The first is that Crime -PIC II (Frude et al, 1994) which is an instrument that measures attitude to crime (G score) and the level of practical and emotional problem offenders face (P score) worked well as a proxy of re-conviction rates. Secondly, the problems identified with OASys, which has implication for all being assessed and using the system and thirdly, that probation-led implementation appears to have received better results than voluntary sector implementation. This certainly requires further attention and delineation, particularly in light of current government practice that is encouraging and supporting further programme and project implementation by the voluntary sectors within criminal justice.
Encouraged by the support for resettlement programmes that the findings in the book provides, it is with a pessimist outlook that further resettlement programme evaluations can do the same in light of the many disadvantageous structures that most resettlement programme inherit.

Dr Lystra Hagley-Dickinson, Senior Lecturer-Criminology, The University of Northampton
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Virtually Criminal: Crime, Deviance & Regulation Online , Williams, M. (2006)London: Routledge
When reviewing Yar's Cybercrime and Society I complained that online video games had been ignored. Whilst Williams doesn't look at games he does look at online communities which share some of the same characteristics and problems.
Williams spent six months in online ethnography and recruited sixty members of the community to a rolling 60 day online focus group to discuss crime, deviance and regulation on Cyberworlds.
We are not told much about the methodology - this is confined to an appendix and a separate publication - or why he uses the name Cyberworlds yet includes screen grabs that reveal the actual (virtual?) site of his research.
The book combines sociology, linguistics and criminology. The sociology concentrates on what is a community and whether Cyberworlds, and the like, are communities. The linguistics concentrates on the fact that most completely intra-cyber deviance is verbal abuse rendered in text.
Hirschi's control theory melded with Matza and Sykes on techniques of neutralisation is adopted without much debate. In the 'criminological' chapters this meld is deployed sensitively to criticisms of control theory and differences between real life and virtual life. However, no other criminological theories are addressed. Obvious candidates would be theories that examine gender, and particularly masculinities, given the preponderance of teenage and young men on such sites.
Whilst rare, virtual rape and online vandalism are discussed as are real life murders linked to online activity but 52.5% of offences for which players were ejected were 'profanity' and 27% for harassment; easily done and easily spotted by the Peace Keepers (PK). More difficult, requiring technical skills, and therefore rarer was on line vandalism (6.1%) or impersonating a PK (.8%). Unsurprisingly, perhaps not knowing the rules, 'tourists' were twice as likely to be ejected for profanity though only half as likely for harassment. None were ejected for vandalism.
How is such deviance policed? Initially, and still in some fora, by communitarian 'shaming' (I'm uncomfortable with William's depiction of this as vigilante). Secondly by the appointment of voluntary or official 'police' and finally by the technology itself - though this may be hacked.
Thus in the game Runescape - personal communication Rhys Groombridge - players can only kill each other in the Wilderness and then are marked with a skull to warn other players. Moreover, if they fail to kill they die and lose most of their virtual possessions. So some measure of deterrence is possible on line but online one can change identities and avatars and re-enter spaces from which one has been ejected.
Second Life is not his research setting, but is the best-known online community. It sets out its community standards and policing and records offences on its police blotter. It also has a well developed research ethics policy.
In an emerging area of study of an exponentially expanding cyberverse it would be unfair to expect a definitive conclusion but it is a good place to start online criminology. Moreover, it is a useful meditation on criminology more generally as the online world and interaction between it and RL offer new problems for the discipline and new versions of old problems.
Nic Groombridge, School of Communications, Culture and Creative Arts, St Mary's University College, Twickenham
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Re-Thinking the Political Economy of Punishment: Perspectives on Post-Fordism and Penal Politics by Alessandro De Giorgi, 2006, Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.
In this remarkable work, De Giorgi takes the daunting tasks of sorting out decades of writings on the political economy and convincingly situates them into a coherent framework explaining punishment in a post-Fordist world. The book, indeed, covers a good deal of territory ranging from the early Rusche and Kirchheimer studies to contemporary perspectives on globalization and pointing out how the use of prisons has not only survived over the years but has adapted to prevailing economic and political forces. As expected, the author sets the stage by turning attention to Foucault, reminding us that we live in a disciplinary society (not a disciplined one) whereby technologies aimed at making individuals docile and useful permeate the entire social body. That normalization process, however, is frequently met with resistance. Moreover, such tension becomes increasingly significant in a post-industrial societies since it reproduces key contradictions in social control. Like other critical criminologists, De Giorgi does not dismiss Foucault but rather re-thinks important aspects of penality in ways that reconcile understandable differences within the Marxist tradition.
With an eye for good format, the author provides an exhaustive review of literature on the political economy while extracting new insights that can be applied to recent shifts in punishment and institutional corrections. Along the way, he links various levels of analysis by demonstrating how macrosociological structures shape microsociological phenomena, adding, for example, to the importance of Melossi's grounded labeling theory, a criminalization process propelled by political business cycles. Similarly, De Giorgi delves into the panopticism of our day, acknowledging that it is the imbalance between the viewers and the viewed that gives agents of social control their power. That form of unequal knowledge, creating "the expert", manifests in numerous settings: the clinic, the school, the factory, and of course the prison-all of which are notable for their degree of penetrating surveillance.
While revisiting a long chronology of penal practices stemming from an evolving political economy, the author looks forward in his analysis. Most notably, De Giorgi examines the contradictions of globalization in which Western states have become obsessed with securing borders that allow goods and services to pass while restricting the mobility of underprivileged people (e.g., refugees, asylum seekers, and underprivileged non-Western workers). For those discarded populations, governments have become increasingly reliant on containment and confinement, key components of contemporary penality.
Although one might have hoped for a more integrative discussion of post-Fordism in the wake September 11th and how that event has been used to rationalize greater American militarism and imperial adventures, the book's principal contribution remains intact by shedding crucial light on punishment as contoured by wider transformations in the political economy.
Michael Welch
Rutgers University

Visiting Fellow
Centre for the Study of Human Rights
London School of Economics
[retrowelch@aol.com]
[www.professormichaelwelch.com]

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Crime and Social Institutions, Edited by Richard Rosenfeld, Ashgate, 2006, 549pp.
This book forms part of the second series of the International Library of Criminology, Criminal Justice and Penology. These volumes provide collections of previously published papers, distinguished by their high quality scholarship, that address a particular theme or issue.
Crime and Social Institutions brings together twenty articles published between 1994 and 2004 that reflect on the relevance and usefulness of the concept of 'social institutions' for criminology. The articles are, with one exception, by American authors and from American journals; and the collection is intended explicitly to provide a sociological challenge to what Rosenfeld sees as a strong individualistic bias in the way US-based criminology tends to analyse and explain crime.
The principal vehicle for this challenge is 'institutional-anomie' theory, largely developed within the Durkheimian-Mertonian tradition. This approach insists on a specific conceptual understanding of 'social institutions' as configurations of values, norms and beliefs together with the means of enacting them: social structures, organisations, statuses, roles, etc. The principal social institutions, claimed to be common to all complex human societies, are identified as the economy, polity, family, education, law and religion. However, whilst these institutions are always interdependent, the relationships between them are marked by power imbalances whereby, in different types of society, particular institutions will tend to be dominant or the balance of power between institutions will vary.
The core proposition of 'institutional-anomie' theory is that these variations in the power relations between social institutions give rise to characteristic types of crime. Thus, 'free-market economies [which] operate relatively unrestrained by other institutions…tend to have high levels of 'anomic' crime such as robbery and homicide'. In contrast, 'Societies in which the polity is dominant tend to have much lower rates of street crime but high levels of official and unofficial corruption' (Rosenfeld, xiii). The particular substantive focus of most of the contributions in the book is the consequences for crime of the dominance of the economy over other social institutions in US society.
The collection is organised into five sections to subject the approach to theoretical analysis (including some radical commentary and critique) and empirical examination. The latter embraces cross-national tests of the theory, US-based tests and investigation of local level relationships between crime and institutional dynamics. In the final section, two articles discuss the implications of the theory for aspects of punishment.
This is an extremely valuable collection for anyone interested in exploring in some depth the particular institutional strand within 'sociological criminology' and in gaining an insight into some of the fairly recent thinking and research among a sector of leading US criminologists. Whether it is worth purchasing from hard-pressed university book budgets is another matter: priced at around £130, most academics will be more inclined to obtain copies of individual articles from the original journals. And, given the price, it should be noted that the quality of reproduction of a number of articles is fairly poor.
David Prior
Institute of Applied Social Studies
University of Birmingham

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Evidence-based crime prevention. Sherman LW, Farrington D P, Welch B C, Mackenzie D L (2006) London and New York, Routledge (paperback edition)
This is an important text. A previous edition was only available, quite expensively in hardback and although many university libraries may have stocked one or two copies, a majority of undergraduates would have been denied access, as might many potentially interested politicians and serious-minded crime journalists.
The original 2002 hardback edition was an updated version of an original 1997 seminal collection of papers but although this version is also an update, it is not entirely clear about the extent of changes since 2002. One noticeable change is the incorporation of material covering the criteria for inclusion of research studies which carefully seeks to address some of the misunderstandings and misrepresentations generated by some critics of the original.
Hopefully, some of those who have been put off reading this book by cost or unfair criticism or whose perceptions of it may have been clouded will now be able to appreciate the content more fully.
The book essentially provides an overview of what the authors believe can be shown, with some reliability, about the effectiveness of particular approaches within the major areas of crime reduction policy endeavour, based upon overview studies of relevant research. The authors cover all of the areas of public policy where crime prevention or reduction is a declared aim, so excludes some areas of public social and economic policy which are acknowledged to be more or less criminogenic.
Each of the 7 areas of policy are covered internationally although the scientific quality criteria for considering inclusion of research findings means that some countries, including the UK, contribute not very much. This is despite a fairly low threshold of research quality. This lack of profile is of concern to some UK criminologists who regard it as undeserved but a serious source of concern to UK policy makers. This is an inevitable if unfortunate consequence of the extreme rarity of relevant UK research in this field at the time the overviews were being compiled.
The authors are extremely explicit about the way they have determined their conclusions about what can be said to be effective, ineffective or "promising". Their criteria may be challenged as too demanding by some critics but they are not actually very stringent at all. The authors would have had very little to say if they had been obliged to consider only studies of highest quality because it is clear that the field of crime prevention is still very poorly served with sufficient research of much quality.
This factor, more than any other, limits the strength of the conclusions which the authors are able to draw about many of the crime interventions assessed in this book, a message still not heard loudly enough by advocates of all kinds of crime policy in the UK and USA.
Returning to the original point, very many undergraduate students of criminology in the UK are already clearly forming the first-ever cadre of professional criminologists employed directly in the sphere of crime and other relevant public policy making and practice in the UK. This is a welcome development but it is therefore absolutely vital that any such cadre should have had an opportunity to read this vital book.
Hopefully, it will equip them to enter their professional lives with their eyes wide open about the limited and sometimes contradictory evidence-base for much of what may currently pass as acceptable UK crime prevention policy and practice.
Paul Kiff
University of East London

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Comparative Youth Justice. Edited by John Muncie and Barry Goldson. London: Sage, 2006.
"Modern juvenile justice appears as ever more hybrid: attempting to deliver neither welfare or justice but a complex and contradictory amalgam of the punitive, the responsibilising, the inclusionary, the exclusionary and the protective" conclude Muncie and Goldson, on page 214 of their edited collection.
But exactly how the combination and variable pull of these drivers give shape to juvenile justice varies between Western countries: less politicised and more welfare- oriented in Finland, but increasingly in the political spotlight (and the ensuing hot water) in places such as France, and England and Wales.
Muncie and Goldson have put together a thorough but still very easy-to-read book on comparative youth justice. Both editors are dab hands at such projects and have done a fine job. The book comprises twelve chapters on youth justice in various countries; the US and Canada, Australia and New Zealand, Japan, and a number of Western European countries, of which the inclusion of Scotland, often overlooked in international/comparative research is good to see. As with Scotland, I welcome the inclusion of a chapter on Belgium. It seems another country that tends to fly under the criminological radar, possibly because of the inherent complexities that arise when governing a culturally divided population. Muncie and Goldson provide for an introduction and a final chapter as well.
It is, for an academic at least, a strange habit to first read what you think you know already. That might explain why my initial focus was on the chapter covering my native country the Netherlands. Uit Beyerse and Van Swaaningen provide a nicely balanced picture that resists the alarmist tone that at times dominates the local 'crime talk'. Bradley, Tauri and Walter discuss youth justice in New Zealand, and nuance the story of success that Family Group Conferencing has been within criminology. Japan's remarkable shift to towards penal population has not failed to affect youth justice, as Fenwick describes, in another highly readable chapter.
The book highlights that youth justice systems are subjected to similar forces: higher political visibility, increased public concern, and a re-positioning of youth justice often away from penal welfarism. That said there is diversity and texture to the ways it operates in the different countries, so that blanket pessimism remains unjustified. Finland seemingly remains a bastion of welfarism, and its distinctive social and political climate nicely explained by Lappi-Seppälä.
My one point of regret is the omission of Norway. The romantic notion of youth justice in Norway is one of unadulterated welfarism. Much of that stems from an incident in the 1990s when two boys in Trondheim, guilty of killing a little girl, were back in school within two weeks, whilst their names were never released in the public domain (Muncie, 2001). It would have been interesting to have had that amazing story either debunked, or put into context. Equally, you might argue would a discussion of youth justice in transitional states such as Lithuania or Rumania have been a valuable addition.
That said the book is impressive. The fact that it reads fluently from start to finish is both to the credit of the contributors and the editors alike.
Francis Pakes
University of Portsmouth

Reference:
Muncie, J. (2001). Policy Transfers and 'What Works': Some Reflections on Comparative Youth Justice. Youth Justice, 1 (3) 27-35.
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Adolescent Crime, Wikstrom, P H and Butterworth, D,(2006) Cullompton, Willan
The discourse of crime policy in the UK, no more nor less than any other arena of public-policy-making, is framed by use of phrases such as "evidence-based", even though it is equally known that this does not mean evidence-led nor necessarily that evidence derives from research findings, let alone reliable research. Nowhere can this be more true currently than in the field of youth crime.
As noted by the authors of this book which reports findings from the 2000 Peterborough Youth Study, key youth crime knowledge deficits have lain in several areas. First, understanding the interworking of risk and protective factors in the derivation of adolescent criminality and their interaction with environmental contexts. Secondly, whether these factors are causal or purely associations. Finally, how, if causal, the trigger factors work alone or differentially in combination with other triggers or inhibitors.
Not much of a research agenda there then that should have been tackled before implementing much of current youth justice policy. It would certainly have been regarded as deeply unethical to attempt to supply children with medicines to tackle health problems on a similar basis but not apparently so in a crime context! The 20th century equivalent of bloodletting?
Nevertheless, thankfully the research reported in this book was at least a start on an attempt to fulfil a part of this agenda with research of necessary quality. Despite being unable to put their ideas to an experimental test, the authors felt able to examine not only the interlinkages mentioned above but also to measure their findings against what they felt justified in construing as an acceptable theoretical framework.
A key question is the self-report basis of data-collection for this study which the authors wisely address early on, rather than in a methodological appendix and show convincingly that they were able to tackle systematically and soundly.
A series of chapters, which comprise the bulk of the text, address the prevalence of adolescent contact with crime and its apparent associations with a wide variety of risk and protective factors of both an individual and environmental nature. There is a huge amount of valuable material here to enable reliable assessment of a very wide range of beliefs and attitudes to youth crime held by politicians, the general public and relevant criminologists. Some of the conclusions are very important indeed and will need to be communicated strongly and loudly in other ways and in other directions than to the likely audience of this book. I include in this, undergraduate students of criminology, many of whom, in my own experience, are shown by this research, to carry as many prejudicial burdens on adolescent crime as some politicians and some dark corners of the media. This is not to criticise the language of this book which is well fit for purpose, only to point out that its readership will be likely to be limited
A highly significant conclusion is that adolescent offenders are a mixed bunch and different approaches are needed for different types of adolescent offender. Support is given to both interventionist and situational crime prevention policy approaches. Most significance is attached to finding enhanced methods of motivating families and schools to make even greater and more sophisticated efforts to engage with young people most at risk or least likely to be inhibited from engaging with an anti-social lifestyle
Paul Kiff University of East London
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Managing social research: a practical guide: London, Rouledge. Tarling, R (2006,)
When first asked to teach the topic of social research management on a specialist master's degree in research methods, some 15 years ago, it was rather surprising to discover that there was an extreme dearth of relevant reading material for students. It was also apparent that virually no UK university had even considered it a topic worth separate identification in teaching programmes, so there was very little available teaching material.
Although one or two publications over the years have begun to populate this professional desert, it became necessary to draw on material gleaned from other disciplinary fields such as financial, risk and project management. Also to fall back on first principles derived over many years experience as a research practitioner and manager.
To my delight, this major gap in the literature has now been largely filled by this excellent text. It covers most of the ground that could conceivably be considered to be within the remit of the "research management".
Research management is an umbrella term for a variety of interrelated concepts which it is hard,if not impossible, to present in a logically structured sequence and this is reflected in this text. This means that students will need to dip into different parts of the book at different times as issues arise. This task has been made easy by the clarity of the descriptions provided for each chapter content. One small quibble is the absence of much attention to the process of research design and strategy selection. From experience, very few students learn the importance of approaching research design from a rational and logical perspective, which addresses issue of cost and reliability alongside risk to project completion.
The book also lacks potentially useful tools such as templates for estimating project resource requirements but this is not a significant criticism compared to the value which most research students and inexperienced research practitioners should be able to draw from it. Hopefully, the availability of this text will also mean that the topic of research management can now be given increased prominence in the teaching of specialist research skills.
Paul Kiff
University of East London
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Restoring justice: an introduction to restorative justice . Daniel W Van Ness and Karen Heetderks Strong. 3rd edition. Philadelphia: LexisNexis/Anderson Publishing, 2006. xvii, 259 pages. ISBN 1-59345-320-5.
Since the first edition of this book was published in 1997 restorative justice has developed considerably, and the third edition takes account of recent progress. It has been revised and restructured, but is not much longer. As before, it starts by describing the context of criminal justice and why reform is needed, and gives a short history of the development of restorative justice as a new pattern of thinking. A welcome link is made with prison abolition. The concept is explained as a form of justice that promotes healing, with a definition amplified by three principles (healing, opportunity to involve victims, offenders and community, and re-thinking the roles of government and community) and ten values. In Part Two, four of these values are selected as 'cornerposts' of restorative justice: encounter, amends, reintegration and inclusion, each of which has a chapter introduced by an example drawn from literature. Part Three is a practical section on making restorative justice happen, with useful guidance on building links with police, prosecutors, probation officers, courts, prison staff and parole officers; this progresses to thoughts on moving to a restorative system and to 'transformation' of perspective, social structures - and persons, perhaps the most difficult and idealistic of all.
Part Four addresses ten issues commonly raised by those who are new to the idea of restorative justice: will it eliminate criminal law, can it work for serious crimes, does it undermine hallowed legal principles, and so on. The United Nations Basic Principles of 2002 are usefully reprinted as an appendix, and there are author and subject indexes and a bibliography.
Anyone with an interest in restorative justice, whether already converted or not, would do well to read this book. It rightly points out that a system is not 'either' restorative 'or' not - there are degrees of restorative ness, according to how many of the cornerposts are incorporated into a particular model. The implication is that a bed with fewer than four cornerposts will be somewhat uncomfortable. I would however upset the metaphor by suggesting two more, which Van Ness and Strong do not emphasise. When they write about involving the community, they imply that community members will be brought into a system that is still run by agencies of the state, rather than being devolved to non-governmental organizations. And a surprising omission is the South African project, Zwelethemba, which is not only community-based, but incorporates a built-in process for tackling local social deficits and thus helping to remove pressures towards crime.
Nonetheless this is a well thought out and stimulating book, and deserves a place near the top of the ever-increasing pile of books on this subject.
Martin Wright , vice-chair, Restorative Justice Consortium
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Cybercrime and Society by Majid Yar (Sage, 2006)
If you are already a criminologist who reads the Guardian's technology supplement on Thursday and have had a computer for a while then you won't learn much from this book. However, it does usefully gather and organise much of the same information with added references, study questions, keywords and glossary. So it would be useful for an undergraduate course and I will add it to my crime and media booklist.
The speed at which the internet is growing - and our relationship to it - means that books like this cannot keep up; so some omissions are to be expected but some are surprising. There is nothing about video games, which would have made it a more attractive book for students. Most modern games consoles have online capabilities and the numbers of online PC games is enormous. In role-playing games crime may be the focus of the game playing but 'player killing' is often possible but seen to run contrary to the spirit of that game. Websites exist to show these virtual deaths just as they do snuff movies or happy slapping. Moreover there are many instances of both real life and virtual frauds and violence intertwining.
What it does cover are the definitional issues: what is a cybercrime, how does if differ from 'real' crimes? Hackers: white hats or black hats (goodies or baddies though Yar doesn't use these geeky terms), geniuses or script kiddies? Clearly media depictions have been important here and 9/11 sparked concern about, though little evidence of, cyber-terrorism.
Piracy and intellectual property rights are covered as are online frauds but the 'reproduction' of a Nigerian scam email adds little. The chapter on pornography is padded with a short history of porn but usefully points out the problems of defining child and the issues raised by photo-manipulation. Hate speech is also tackled in this chapter.
The stalking of individuals online and concerns about paedophile grooming occupy the penultimate chapter. Cyber stalking comes closest to being old wine in technological new bottles but differs from real life in more often involving strangers rather than ex-intimates. Perhaps mobile phones might have been mentioned here as intermediate between cyber space and real life and as part of wider ICT issues. It is at this point that 'moral panics' are considered though Furedi is preferred to Cohen for citation.
The final chapter turns to issues of privacy and, the currently sexy, subject of surveillance. Attempts to protect our freedom on the net use the same tools that cyber criminals might seek to use against us - if you try to hide you're suspected of having something to hide. Some discussion of 'risk society' might have been appropriate here.
There is no real conclusion. However, this is not necessarily a criticism. Each chapter is summed up and it may be premature to try and force a conclusion on such a protean subject.
Nic Groombridge, School of Communications, Culture and Creative Arts, St Mary's University College, Twickenham
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Understanding Street Drugs - A Handbook of Substance Misuse for Parents, Teachers and Other Professionals. Second Edition. By David Emmett and Graeme Nice. Jessica Kingsley Publishers. 2006
The effects of drug misuse are very expensive to the UK economy and affects many aspects of public services. Millions of pounds are spent on rehabilitation services, healthcare, the criminal justice system, and social care. However, many individuals still have limited knowledge of drugs or do not know how to deal with a client or relative who occasionally or regularly takes drugs. This book had been formulated to provide useful help and advice.
In the first chapter the authors reflect upon their experiences of helping young people with drug problems. They also consider society's general viewpoint towards drugs and they discuss how young people can have a positive influence on other young people and as a result help to reduce illicit drug use.
The next chapter moves on to educate the reader, providing a brief history of drug use through the ages and a discussion of the use of drugs in Britain today. They deliberate upon the lucrative international drugs trade as well as the home-grown cultivation of drugs such as cannabis.

The next few chapters form part one of the book. They provide a guide to the wide array of drugs that are misused, including cannabis, stimulants, hallucinogens, opiates, volatile substances imbibed through sniffing, tranquillisers and sleeping pills and anabolic steroids. Emmet and Nice even offer information regarding the misuse of over-the-counter and prescription-only medicines and 'date-rape' drugs. The information is bestowed in two ways; there is a quick-reference guide of no more than two pages and a detailed section with in-depth information on each type of drug.
In part two of the book the authors try to educate the reader further about the world of the drug user. To the uneducated eye the paraphernalia of the drug user can be easily missed or misinterpreted so the authors have crafted a chapter to inform the reader about the physical evidence of drug misuse. There is also a chapter that highlights the signs and symptoms which a person misusing substances might exhibit.
Amongst other chapters there is a section to help the reader manage drug-related incidents. The authors have generated seven scenarios related to substance abuse that give advice on how to deal with such situations. The scenarios range from a person displaying behavioural signs and symptoms of possible drug use to a person found unconscious after taking drugs. The appendices also provide a guide on generating a substance misuse policy as well as the addresses of organisations that advise or deal with substance misuse issues.
I have to say that I found this book immensely useful in furthering my knowledge regarding drugs and easy to read with helpful diagrams and flow-charts. It avoids being overly academic but is very informative. I whole heartedly recommend this book for anybody who has an interest in understanding the illicit drugs world.
Leroy McFarlane,
Leicestershire Partnerships NHS Trust

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My Brother's Keeper. Faith-based units in prisons. Burnside, J., Loucks, N/. Adler, J.R. & Rose, G. (2005). Devon: Willan.
This book takes the reader on a journey from the establishment of faith based units in South American prisons to the expansion and transformation for US and UK based establishments. It parts the book is confusing but this is not a criticism of the authors but that of the complicated nature of the topic and the organisations using similar names to add to their credibility.
Chapter 1 gives a good explanation of the history which was helped by the use of diagrams to aid understanding.
The authors give a candid, detailed account of the difficulties in adapting the 'pure form' developed in South America to various establishments in the US and UK. It was acknowledged that the implementation of a faith based prison would not be possible so the introduction of faith based units was tried.
The early attempts kept the philosophy of the original in that they were 'Christian' based and depended on the use of large numbers of volunteers. The book explores the difficulties when expansion took place in communities where there was not enough of a population together with the difficulties of getting large numbers of people into prison establishments. It appears that this has not been such an issue in the US as it has been in the UK.
The book gives a detailed explanation of each prison establishment in the US and the UK and it was essential that there was commitment from the highest level to enable such units to be successful. One interesting fact was the conflict in most establishments between those running these units and the prison chaplaincy.
Views from prisoners, governors , staff and all involved were given and the tensions of trying to set such units up within the framework of the prison system and the actual physical structures were discussed.
A major tension appears to be that of the Christian emphasis. The authors state that, some of the organisations, seem confused as to their philosophy and there is a need to be honest with prisoners as too what they are signing up to. Some are more 'evangelical' than others and this causes conflict in the UK with prison service regulations and in the US with the separation of the Church and State. This is especially important if movement to such a unit is built into sentence planning and thereby, by coming off the unit, means they are not complying with their requirements.
The tensions within the prisons as other prisoners and staff seeing such units as 'soft options' was discussed and that some people go onto the unit to help them with parole etc. The regime however, was very strict and, as pointed out, there were benefits and costs for being on the units.
Although some faith based units stated that they has Christian foundations but were open to any faith, very few prisoners of other faiths did join them.
In the UK most of the original faith based units have closed due to the Government and Prison Service claiming that they did not work. Many saw this as a reaction to September 11 and pressure from the Muslim Community. However, research conducted on reconviction rates detailed in the book would seem to support this (however the trend was in the right way). A re-analysis of such work in the US also refutes the original findings in relation to reconviction rates. However, this is not the only measure of success, reports from staff and others maintain that behaviour within establishments improved and those engaging did develop.
There has been a further adaptation in the UK which is required to adhere to strict Prison Service guidelines and it operating in some establishments. The authors again state that they need to be clear on their philosophy and identity to ensure informed consent.
Dr Sue Thomas, Senior Psychologist, IMPACT (Prison Service), HMYOI Thorn Cross, Warrington, Cheshire.
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Managing Modernity: Politics and the Culture of Control. Matt Matravers (Ed) (Routledge, 2005)
Matravers' has produced a challenging and important collection. It provides a necessary space for a collection of commentary and sensible critique on Garland's seminal text, The Culture of Control (2001). Whilst Garland (2001) resulted in a plethora of commentary and views, one feels that it was not until Matravers' collection emerged that a suitable space has been found to co-locate these views.
The text is explicitly not just a critique - and that is perhaps a strength, for it allows the ever-changing ebb and flow of the original sociological narrative to be revealed with each commentator. As Matravers notes in the introduction; "[Garland's text] provides an ideal springboard for philosophers, criminologists, sociologists and others looking to theorise late modernity". Appropriately, Garland is also afforded space to respond and expand on particular themes.
The range of commentary is broad, diverse and generally accessible. Clearly though, a sound knowledge of The Culture of Control would be necessary to get the most benefit from Matravers' work. There are a number of notable pieces populating this book.
Western's chapter focuses on two conceptual issues - the tension between neoliberal and neoconservative politics and whether Garland's analysis could have been developed further than it was. On the first, Western regards these dominant paradigms as, "propelling several of the most important policy developments identified in the book" (p. 34). However, he contends that the cultural and social arrangements highlighted in Garland (2001) - particularly in America - were not just a result of these paradigms. Western rejects the idea that neoliberalism has been influential in developing American public policy. Rather, he sees an overwhelming dominance in a highly racialised, neoconservative approach to public policy development.
Western's second thesis develops Garland's arguments further. Western sees Garland's basic argument as one in which mass social trends have driven changes in public policy. However, he believes that this should be developed further with, "crime control efforts becoming so pervasive in poor urban communities that they have distinct effects on the social structure" (P. 38). This is certainly up for debate (Miller, 1996), particularly as his central argument revolves just around the collateral impact on imprisonment.
Other contributing authors include Ian Loader and Richard Sparks, John Hagan, Barbara Hudson, Lorraine Gelsthorpe, Sandra Marshall, Amanda Matravers and Shadd Maruna, Claire Vallier and David Garland. All make valuable, unique and insightful contributions that develop, expand and drive forward the debates within and surrounding Garland (2001).
When Garland (2001) was published one had a feeling of it being a seminal moment within academic criminology. It is still regarded as a key explanatory text and springboard for further debate. Without doubt this work continues in a similar vein, and should sit firmly alongside Garland (2001) as a critical and insightful companion.
Miller, J. (1996). Search and Destroy: African-American Males in the Criminal Justice System, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Peter Hamerton
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Reshaping probation and prisons: the new offender management framework. Mike Hough, Rob Allen, and Una Padel, eds. Bristol: Policy Press, 2006.
ISBN 86134 812 6 pbk
£14.99. 102 pp.

For some of us the very name 'National Offender Management Service' (NOMS) suggests an unpleasant, dehumanized approach to erring human beings - and one which pays little attention to victims. The speakers at the symposium whose proceedings are published in this volume maintain a more objective stance, but their conclusions suggest at best making the best of a bad job, with warnings of the traps into which the massive restructuring of the English penal system may be falling. It is conceded that state monopolies do not have a brilliant track record in delivering public services such as health and education, and that in the case of prisons the introduction of private sector competition may have been effective in breaking the stranglehold of the Prison Officers' Association; but as Alison Liebling points out, that does not mean that this model will make the probation service more efficient. Bringing the prison and probation services together was supposed to join up the separate 'silos' in which they worked; but the introduction of 'purchasers and providers', 'management and interventions' seems a way of creating new silos within probation.
The Carter Report which gave rise to this is based on some questionable assumptions, such as that sentencing can reduce crime. Seamless transition from prison to community is all very well, but imprisonment has caused many of the problems in the first place. Carter does however advocate diversion of lower-risk offenders, and day fines. John Raine examines the relationship of NOMS to crime reduction and points to the tensions between various aims of sentencing, which the Sentencing Guidelines Council has done little to clarify. What makes the difference is not so much the sentence as the human resources which support it.
Peter Raynor and Mike Maguire show how morale has been undermined by largely unnecessary organizational change and preparations for 'contestability'. The whole essence of this concept is to award contracts to those (including state, voluntary sector or profit-making organizations) who submit the most persuasive (or cheapest) tender, and to give it to someone else if they do not deliver. This, they point out, is a recipe for destroying the accumulation of skills and the continuity of relationships on which work with troubled and troublesome people depends.
As regards on keeping the lid on the prison population, the government's mind is split. Everyone in the system knows that many prisoners should be dealt with in other ways; only sentencers regard punishment as the primary aim, while the public and other professionals rank it fourth, with rehabilitation in first place. But our penal experts, the populist newspapers, support prison expansion, which is therefore government policy. Carol Hedderman examines this question, and makes the important point that ever-tougher enforcement of community penalties means that precisely those who need support in the community are denied it because they are the most likely to infringe their conditions and be sent to prison.
Along with managerialism, the dehumanized vision of crime control is based on technology, which the private sector is considered to do better. Mike Nellis discusses electronic monitoring, to which he is not totally opposed, and the scary suggestion by a former minister of tagging all adult offenders or tracking them by satellite. Never mind human relationships: this could be 'a significant business opportunity'. But detraditionalisation [sic] could also replace an expensive ineffective system with a cheaper, equally ineffective one.
David Faulkner, as always, brings the expertise of a classically educated former civil servant, and the civilized values that go with it. He suggests how some kind of humane system could be built on NOMS, if it would accept trial-and-error, not rules; rewards for success, not punishment for failure; initiative not conformity: and negotiation and consent not direction and command. Finally in an end-note, Rob Allen and Mike Hough suggest two futures: to stimulate the service by drawing in extra resources from the community and perhaps the private sector, or to introduce out-and-out contestability in which relationships with courts, as well as with offenders, would be undermined by constant changes and decisions based on the profit motive.
Uncertainty continues because legislation has been delayed until November 2006 or later, but the government is beginning to push probation services towards contracting out some of its work, by setting a target of 5 per cent of their budgets to be spent on 'partnership arrangements', which some people expect to rise to 10 per cent in the next two years. If the partnerships are with the NGO sector, this could be acceptable as a form of community involvement; it is the introduction of the profit motive which makes it questionable.
.
Although the writers have not been well served by their publisher, who has provided no index, and uses a spidery sans-serif type-face that looks as if it was chosen by a cost accountant to save ink, this book deserves to be read by anyone interested in the interaction of politics, public sector management theory and the penal system; there are glimmers of hope, but in the main it shows why NOMS has been nicknamed, after the London base of the Home Office, as 'Nightmare on Marsham Street.'
Martin Wright
August 2006

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Victims of crime and community justice. Brian Williams.London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2005. 176 pp. ISBN-13: 978-1-84310-195-6 (pbk)
£16.95 / US$ 28.95

The British government is saying that it wants to 'rebalance the criminal justice system in favour of victims'. It is trying to do so within the conventional system, although some would argue that the best way would be to shift towards more informal, community justice. Not that that is always ideal - it needs safeguards - but it has great potential if it is restorative.
Brian Williams provides a useful summary of what has been happening in this field in the United Kingdom, and he has included a welcome perspective on developments in Europe (unusually for a British criminologist, he cites some references in French). He is sceptical of government initiatives like the Victims' Charter, introduced without consultation or preparation in 1990. He casts a critical eye over compensation (from the state and from offenders), and describes improved care for witnesses in the UK and North America, with special reference to a Canadian family violence court - whose effectiveness depends on the availability of support programmes.
There is a useful discussion of community justice; it needs to be fair and accountable, but could be dominated by interest groups and/or authoritarian. Some programmes have little direct involvement of victims, like the reparative boards in Vermont, USA the community justice centre in Liverpool, and (for understandable reasons) the circles of support and accountability which support sexual ex-offenders rather than shunning them. There is more community involvement in the peace committees in South Africa, which seem to be one of the most promising developments on the current scene. Williams also describes some of the numerous recent British innovations such as 'community safety partnerships', and the 'febrile' way some pilot projects were 'rolled out' before research results were known.
A chapter is devoted to restorative justice and its implications for victims. Williams warns against well known pitfalls, such as legitimizing criminal justice rather than replacing it and using the term itself loosely, but he quotes Walgrave's neat encapsulation of the essential difference between a communitarian and restorative society, based upon trust, respect, participation, responsibility, solidarity and mutual support, and one (which he does not label but might be described as authoritarian), based upon threat, coercion or fear (p. 63).
Restorative justice does however raise potential problems, especially in its current implementation, such as being paternalistic or not genuinely voluntary; these may be the price paid for moving some restorative values to the centre of the justice system. Some programmes involve police, which does not fit the original aim of reducing state involvement. But there have been successful innovations, such as family group conferences and the South African peace committees; Williams mentions examples from Denmark (but it is no loner running) and Austria, which works with domestic violence cases (but, like much English practice, it has no community involvement, which, given his title, one might have expected the author to mention).
Considering how to improve the position of victims, Williams spells out how many victims are not especially punitive, but are used by politicians 'in the service of severity'. Some details are omitted, for example the benefits trap (large compensation awards count as 'capital' and victims therefore lose their means-tested state welfare benefits), and courts' failure to give compensation orders priority over fines as the law requires; he states that 'nowhere in Europe' is there a system for paying compensation up-front to victims, to be paid back to the fund in instalments (pp. 94-8), but the 'resocialization funds' in Germany and elsewhere so just that. Elsewhere however he shows that he writes from practical, not just theoretical, knowledge, for example about the way victim contact work was foisted on the probation service with no extra resources (pp. 107-8). He gives examples of 'real improvements' in the treatment of victims, including cases of domestic violence.
He concludes that some changes ostensibly to meet victims' needs were made for political reasons, such as victim statements. Victims of some crimes are ignored, such as corporate crimes; he is sceptical of regulatory approaches, which he says did little for thalidomide victims, for example; ignoring regulations can have fatal results, as with the corrupt flouting of building regulations when there is an earthquake (in Turkey), or the exploitation of Chinese cockle-pickers (in England). He makes the point that since women trafficked for prostitution are having sex against their will, their clients are rapists and should be treated as such. Williams ends with a challenging list of subjects needing reform, or at least research, and calls on victim support organizations to press for them.
This book is useful not only as an introduction to the subject, with an account of the development of victim services in the last three decades, but also as a review of the current state of assistance to victims in the United Kingdom, with some welcome comparisons from abroad. Practitioners will find some helpful suggestions and information, and it should certainly be read by policy makers and those who advise politicians.
Martin Wright
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Governing paradoxes of restorative justice, by George Pavlich. London, Sydney and Portland OR: Glasshouse Press. 2005. ISBN 1-90438-519-2
142 pages. pbk £25.00, €7.00, US$ 50.00, AU$ 82.00.

(This review originally appeared in RJ Online.)
Mediation appears to be independent but is a way of indirectly expanding state control of people, according to Pavlich. This is an aspect of 'governmentality', a Foucaultian term describing how 'power both creates and is created by the subjects entangled within its orbits' (p. 10). (This description, as with much of Pavlich's writing, would be clearer if he gave some examples.) He summarizes restorative justice ideas, for example that it is based on healing instead of punishment, and tends to be personal, carried out by members of the community, rather than impersonal, carried out by officials. The trouble is, according to him, that while it claims to be an alternative to criminal justice, it depends on the system for its supply of cases and its finances, and tends to respond only to those forms of harm which the state defines as 'crime'; thus it tries to be an alternative while really being an appendage. As he says, we should not merely 'restore' an unsatisfactory, often criminogenic, status quo; but he ignores writers on restorative justice who have made a similar point, and the fact that community mediation does deal with non-criminal conflicts. It is true, though, that the restorative process has made little use of its potential to expose factors conducive to crime and press for action; an exception, which he might have mentioned, is the programme for community peacemaking and peacebuilding in Zwelethemba and other South African townships (Roche 2003: 264-6).
For victims, restorative justice does offer more participation, but, he says, requires them to accept 'victim' status which focuses on their loss and disempowerment: it promotes victimhood rather than deliver people from it (p. 60). He comments that 'one might consider various case studies' (p. 53); that would be a good idea, because it might make his position clearer. In fact many case histories show victims not as losers but as people showing concern for offenders, even becoming benefactors, for example by offering jobs - in other words, not disempowered at all (Crosland and Liebmann 2003). He claims that the restorative justice process 'does little or nothing to enable subjects to engage politically with, and so substantially alter, the broader social conditions that have generated their suffering to begin with' (pp. 59-60). In fact, however, it does more than the criminal justice system to make both victims and mediators aware of social ills; there is nothing to stop them engaging politically, but that will be in their capacity as citizens.
There is a long discussion of the meanings of 'community'. He focuses on the definition which suits his stance, as people with something in common who thereby exclude others (pp. 100-1); but not the (admittedly somewhat amorphous) one as 'interactions between free individuals outside … formal state institutions' (pp. 87-8); and even they are members of the community when they come home (Wright 2003).
Pavlich is vague about how restorative justice could be improved. He says that it 'has proved to be … no match for that capricious old fox which is assembled under the banner of criminal justice' (p. 105): he would apparently like it to be independent of criminal justice, and many communitarians will agree. Since the concept of crime is arbitrary, including some actions which are not very harmful and excluding some which are, he suggests a different concept : injustice. But how would this work in practice? Would injustices be codified (which would be open to the same objections as crimes) or categorized case-by-case (which could be arbitrary, not to say capricious)? But at this point the book stops.
I hope my summary of Pavlich's argument is reasonably correct, but if not, at least part of the reason lies in his use of language. His most annoying habit is to use words in a peculiar non-dictionary sense; for example, 'calculation' means (I think) 'concept', and 'enunciation' is 'definition'. He uses obscure words like 'aporia' (doubt) and 'aporetic', which the SOED says are alien and obsolete, respectively; and how can doubt be 'impossible' (p. 109)? He resorts to Latin to describe one of his key concepts (the 'imitor paradox'), and mixes metaphors (can you puncture a horizon? - p. 117). . Whole paragraphs contain no nouns except abstract ones. . The purpose of language is to communicate, and he might find it salutary to read Francis Wheen's (2004: chapter 4) debunking of post-modern deconstructionist jargon.
Pavlich has a tendency to 'hypostatise' (?lump together) different restorative justice theorists and practitioners, but he is right to point out that they have not addressed all the problems that it raises. Some are not adventurous enough in challenging the state of present-day society, and practice falls far short even of current un-radical ideals. This needs saying, but the book would be more balanced if it also acknowledged the merits of restorative justice. There will be a better chance that something can be done about the objections if they can be more clearly expressed, and it is to be hoped that this author (who, paradoxically, is a lover of language) will explain them in a more accessible way.
Martin Wright
REFERENCES
Crosland, P and M Liebmann (2003) 40 cases: restorative justice and victim-offender mediation. Bristol: Mediation UK. www.mediationuk.org.uk
Roche, D (2003) Accountability in restorative justice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Wheen, F (2004) How mumbo-jumbo conquered the world. London: Harper Perennial.
Wright, M (2003) "Community involvement in restorative justice." Paper to DIKÊ seminar: 'Protection and promotion of victims' rights in Europe.' Lisbon, September 2003. Published (in English and Portuguese) in Apoia á Vitima (APAV), Protection and promotion of victims' rights in Europe. apav.sede@apav.pt
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Criminology: The basics
Sandra Walklate Routledge 2005

As stated in its preface, Criminology: the basics is a book 'intended to introduce both the lay reader and the prospective student to the issues and dilemmas that exist within the discipline of criminology' (vii). The intended readership is rather different to the readership of texts that criminologists are normally asked to review and this caused me to think very carefully about how we present our discipline to a wider audience and one outside of the student, teaching, academic, policy and practitioner communities. It also caused me to consider how we might have become accustomed and perhaps complacent and unimaginative in our endeavours to challenge common sense understandings of the crime problem generally, as well as common sense understandings and media images of crime, the criminal and the victim. Explanations for crime and solutions to it together with policy interventions are also topical subjects that potential criminologists and members of the public might be persuaded to think about criminologically rather than commonsensically. The content of this book considers all of these areas.
Getting people to develop their criminological imagination - the subject of chapter 9 - is the thread that runs throughout this introductory guide. This theme enables the author to inform the reader of the diversity and range of interests that the discipline of criminology concerns itself with and what some of the key components of it are. She illustrates the sorts of questions criminologists are interested in and why and what our ultimate goals are. In a total of nine compact chapters the reader is guided and persuaded how to think about: counting crime (chapter 2), how much crime (chapter 3), the search for criminological explanation (chapter 4), the victim of crime (chapter 5), crimes of the suites (chapter 6), the question of justice (chapter 7) and crime prevention and the future of crime control (chapter 8). In all of these chapters the reader is offered a selective yet challenging set of criminological theories, concepts, principles and perspectives. For example chapter four focuses on rational choice, social control and relative deprivation theories and concepts of 'hegemonic masculinity' and gender, the 'criminal other' and the 'victimological other', whilst in chapter six those of revenge, rehabilitation, restitution, reparation and restoration are addressed as well as principles of natural justice, due process, crime control and social justice. Feminist perspectives are signposted throughout as having influenced how crime is explained, what crimes and victimisations are invisible and who counts as real criminals and who counts as real victims, whilst the importance of power and the state are clearly outlined in discussions of Marxist criminology, radical criminology and critical criminology. In addition to embracing some complex criminological theories, concepts, principles and perspectives, where appropriate the chapters include a historical context and a factual or descriptive statement of the key features of that subject area. For example in chapter 7 'A question of justice', the key components of the criminal justice system of England and Wales are indicated with brief overviews of the police, the Crown Prosecution Service, the courts, the Probation Service, the Youth Justice System and the prison service alongside issues of criminological interest including comparative issues between different jurisdictions and issues relating to discretion and institutional racism.
Thus the book illustrates the diversity and range of interests that shape the discipline of criminology. In this cleverly combined preview of what a criminologist might focus upon and why they might do so, we are also guided as to how a criminologist might approach their research and analysis. In so doing we are introduced to some of the key authors, writers and research that is connected to the study of crime and criminology as well as some of the key influences and factors that ought to stimulate a criminologically inquiring mind.
Whilst the book has the word 'basics' in its title this should not be taken to indicate that a simplified or comprehensive account of what constitutes criminology is on offer here. Neither should it be assumed that it offers criminology made simple. This book does not demean its lay audience but rather challenges members of the public to grapple with crime and its related issues on the basis of good sense rather than common sense. However, the book is not cluttered up with overtly scholarly language that isn't clearly explained, (or defined in a glossary towards the end of the book), nor is it densely referenced although there are recommendations for further reading including books and other resources at the end of each chapter. The book is altogether of a different style and approach to any of the more 'basic' texts that novice and student criminologists might use.
My main criticism does not relate to the content of the book but to the presentation of it by the publisher Routledge. Aimed at a potential mass audience, the publishers have opted for an affordable (£9.99) compact and cheaply produced product that is not especially eye-catching and in my opinion not likely to jump of the bookshop shelves as a crime best seller. Those who do choose to peruse the cheap yellowed paper inside are advised to read the whole book to get the most from this uniquely organised guide to appreciating what criminology is and how to think criminologically.
Pam Davies
Northumbria University
March 2006

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Questioning Crime and Criminology, Moira Peelo and Keith Soothill (eds),Cullompton: Willan 2005.pp.xvi plus 171, index
The stated purpose of this volume as indicated by the blurb is to take criminology students to 'the heart of the contradictions, confusions and blurred boundaries around the subject of crime'. This turns out to be a slightly less radical enterprise than might be thought from the title. The authors of the various chapters are not generally considering activities which some people see as criminal and others as innocuous, or questioning the whole basis of criminology. Instead the central claim is that various kinds of theoretical debate are essential to the understanding of issues in criminology and the progress of the discipline. Within this remit the various chapters are superb: each offers excellent examples of this process at work and takes students to the heart of current debates.
It is impossible given the constructions of space to do justice to all chapters. Soothill kicks things off by attempting to relate general theories of crime to the social and scientific background of the time where they became popular and argues that Farrington's developmental and life course criminology maybe emerging as such a theory, fitting into a generally conservative and punitive era and perhaps amenable to being linked to the 'so-called genetics revolution' (p. 18). Peelo considers the media, emphasising how deeply embedded it is in ordinary life, so that the edges of fact and fiction are becoming blurred. This in turn threatens the link between journalism as a source of truth and democracy, as does the growth of spin. Both the media and society have become more fragmented over the last 30 years, yet there are public narratives of common threads and shared knowledge. Particularly since 1979 crime has invariably played a central role on the public stage. These developments make it necessary to question the existing theoretical frameworks, notably the idea of moral panics, which misses the significance of emotion in the contemporary media and is prone to sound dismissive of arguably legitimate public concerns. It is better to start from the idea of a public narrative.
Simon Holdaway produces a very subtle analysis of the issue of police racism, both in terms of a series of possible explanations of the larger numbers of black youths who are stopped and searched and of moves within the police to challenge racism. Chris Grover marshals a trenchant series of statistics and arguments to demonstrate links between inequality and crime. The wildest set of arguments in the book are appropriately put forward by Mike Presdee in an analysis of arson. He has a compelling case that the massive scale of arson demands a cultural explanation, although feminists particularly will doubt the enormous significance of the first man who decided not to extinguish fires by urinating on them. Fiona Measham provides compelling evidence of the disproportionate enforcement of drug laws. Males use drugs rather more than females, but experience nine times as many convictions Blacks use drugs rather less than whites but suffer over twice the white rate of caution and arrest. She turns to the normalisation debate, arguing that illegal drug use has become normalised whilst public tolerance of tobacco has declined. Brian Francis and Keith Soothill turn in a very subtle chapter which starts by arguing that it is necessary to pay attention to the social construction of crime in order to explain changing patterns, and then goes on to demonstrate the effects of age, period and cohort along with a spectacular demonstration of the failure of an econometric prediction. David Lyon's chapter offers a balanced account of surveillance as a phenomenon involving a partially linked series of technologies and interests rather than the all embracing phenomenon which one would expect from a reading of Foucault.
I do not see this collection as a text for one particular course, but the individual articles will richly repay study by students (and academics) dealing with a number of areas.
Mark Cowling
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Fox, J.A. and Levin, J. (2005) Extreme Killing. Understanding Serial and Mass Murder. Thousand Oaks, California. Sage.
ISBN 0-7619-8857-2
 
Brookman, Fiona (2005). Understanding Homicide. London. Sage
ISBN 0-7619-4755-8
Extreme Killing is an appalling book, gratuitously salacious to the point of pornography in its description of victimisation that appears designed to stimulate sexual excitement rather than for any possible contribution to criminological understanding of serial and mass murder.
There were two clues that should have been a warning. The first was in the brief biographies of the authors, both distinguished Professors of Criminology from Northeastern University, which had little to say about methodology or contribution to theory but listed the TV shows that they had appeared on to share their knowledge gleaned from years of research into mass murders. The other clue was in the advertising blurb which described the book as an 'introduction to an extreme set of homicidal behaviours for any interested reader'. Given the target audience the book was aiming to reach it was largely descriptive and singularly lacking in critical analysis. If, like me, you have wondered why the USA has so many cases of serial murder, might one explanation not lie with the process of how homicide is investigated in the US? Yet criminal investigation does not get a mention in the index and where it does find a place in the text it is confined to about ten superficial and descriptive pages. This book was intended to be read by anybody, it is likely to be read only by those with a voyeuristic interest, and it deserves to be read by nobody.
What a refreshing contrast Brookman's treatment of the subject was. It is strategic yet contains many tactical insights and is full of critical analysis. The structure of the book is in four parts. Part 1 deals with how homicide is defined and constructed and the patterns and characteristics of it in the UK. In Part 2 there is an excellent analysis of biological, psychological and sociological explanations of homicide that makes for a most interesting and informative read. In Part 3 the author seeks to answer key questions such as Why do men kill? Why do women kill? Who kills children and infants? How do we make sense of serial killers and terrorists? In Part 4 there is a very useful discussion of how homicide is investigated in the UK and how it could be prevented.
There is a comprehensive index.
The book is very good from a pedagogic perspective which will make it an excellent student textbook. Each chapter commences with a clear overview. The subsequent text is interspersed with study tasks that are neither trivial nor patronising but thoughtfully constructed and which in turn encourage thoughtful reflection. Each section has a short summary paragraph before moving on to the careful dissection of another aspect of homicide. Each chapter ends with a succinct summary and brief statement of conclusions that can be drawn from the discussion.
The author displays a real insight into the subject, identifying and analysing controversial issues, e.g. is there a 'dark figure' of unrecorded homicides? How many actual homicides end up being classified as suicide?
There was one slight inaccuracy where the cognitive interview and the PEACE model are suggested as being one and the same whereas they are in fact two different but similar approaches to investigative interviewing.
The author acknowledges her help from recent UK research into homicide (Stellfox, Innes) which she uses together with her own theoretical explanations of different forms of homicide. The book is based on analysis of the UK homicide index, examination of police files and recent Home Office funded research into ways of reducing homicide. Whilst focussed on the UK the book draws on literature, research and debates from around the world.
This is a serious academic book that will be of great benefit to researchers, students and practitioners. It is refreshingly totally devoid of the sexual titillation that characterised Extreme Killing. I thoroughly commend this book. The reader will not be disappointed.
I have one criticism and that is for the publisher, Sage who could have made a better job of packaging this excellent text. The paper lacks a quality feel, the print quality is poor and these shortcomings are not helped by the choice of cover design, which is a mess. I couldn't help thinking that Fiona Brookman deserved better from her publisher. Don't let this put you off as this is one of those occasions where the content is much better than the cover of the book.
Dr Tom Williamson
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Wortley, R and Smallbone, S (Eds) 2006, "Situational Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse" Crime Prevention Studies Volume 19 Cullompton: Willan Publishing
As noted by the authors of this international collection in their introduction, the idea that prevention of child sexual abuse might be susceptible to a situational approach is something that has been rarely contemplated by many involved in the use of approaches based upon changing the attitudes and consequent behaviours of perpetrators. Equally, advocates of a situational approach to crime prevention in general have rarely given it much consideration.
Meanwhile, public debates about Society's response to the phenomenon of child sexual abuse in recent years has been predominantly shaped by a protectionist view that such offences are committed by the utterly depraved, deserving of an approach based upon punitive incarceration followed by a community existence segregated from potential victims with the support of compulsory special registration schemes.
Both the protectionist and the behavioural approaches reflect an underlying conviction that society is dealing with a very tiny group of persons with potentially unmodifiable attitudes. Success rates with behavioural approaches have not convinced many of the sceptical media that a heavy dose of incarceration and almost permanent segregation is unnecessary.
The importance of this book lies in its evidence-based approach to the problem. It does not pretend to deny that research evidence of any kind favouring situational approaches is rare, if not non-existent at present. Nevertheless, the authors have commissioned chapters which utilise information gathered from very detailed research into the nature of child sexual abuse offenders and their modus operandi. They show that the nature of such offending opens many potential areas for a situational approach.
The editors themselves contribute an opening chapter with their analysis of the characteristics of child sexual abusing offenders , concluding from this that there must indeed be potential for situational approaches and outlining a wide range of suggested situational strategies derived from their analysis of child sexual abusers' behaviours.
A group of Canadian authors in the second substantive chapter concentrate on summarising available research evidence concerning the relative significance of situational factors versus behavioural (dispositional) factors in such criminal behaviour. They conclude on the not very positive note that situational approaches could be effective but that they would be unpopular with civil libertarians whilst probably failing to prevent a high proportion of such crimes. This is because most such crimes are committed by family friends or are intra-familial and very effectively concealed. This latter set of conclusions is confirmed in a subsequent chapter which examines official records of child sexual abusive offending in the USA.
A lengthy contribution describes a very useful theoretical model for situational approaches to child sexual abuse whilst further chapters identify a situational approach to internet abuse, the situational dimension to strategies used by offenders to target victims and a very important discussion of how it may best be possible to integrate situational and behavioural modification strategies.
Overall, this book is a welcome effort at achieving a rapport between traditionally separate approaches to preventing one of society's most hated crimes. A must-read for both behavioural and situational separatists, criminologists and crime-scientists alike
Paul Kiff, University of East London
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Elizabeth Elliott and Robert M Gordon, eds. New directions in restorative justice: issues, practice, evaluation. Cullompton: Willan, 2005. 318 pages.
ISBN 1-84392-132-4 pbk
1-84392-133-2 hbk

Canada has given much attention to restorative justice, so it was a good place to hold a conference and publish the proceedings. These reflect the Canadian provenance, but include welcome contributions from other countries, including a non-Anglophone one (Belgium) - two if you count Québec. The contents are loosely grouped under four main headings. Under 'Youth and restorative justice' (an offender-focused heading, since it is referring to young offenders, not victims), Lode Walgrave writes on mainstreaming restorative justice (R J). He argues, not for the first time, that restoration is 'ethically more acceptable than deliberately inflicting pain' (p. 7), and warns against the danger of adding a 'pinch' of R J to an unreconstructed criminal justice system.
Introducing a restorative approach into schools is one way of preventing the idea from being swallowed up by the criminal justice system, and the Australian pioneer Brenda Morrison shows how, unlike exclusion, it can encourage supportive relationships as well as control. Given a whole-school approach it can handle serious incidents including bullying, assaults and a bomb threat. Shame, however, needs careful handling: it needs to be discharged, not converted to anger. The New Zealand system is outlined by Gabrielle Maxwell, although it is not, as she says, the only national restorative youth justice system (p. 69): Austria has followed suit. The New Zealand system, best practice guidelines and research findings are usefully summarized, with emphasis on the requirements outside the system, such as early intervention, mental health services, and not placing young people in situations where they bond with other offenders. The process should be respectful, so that the young person is not stigmatized and feels genuinely remorseful (the latter, of course, can't be guaranteed even by the best system). But even in New Zealand there is room for improvement (p. 70).
Canada has a new Youth Criminal Justice Act (in force 2003). Serge Charbonneau shows that it has restorative elements but does not mention the word, and is basically punitive. He suggests the factors without which justice is not restorative, notably putting victims at the heart of the process.
The second section, on aboriginal justice, will be most relevant in countries with indigenous minority populations, but raises general issues. For example, Jonathan Rudin reminds us that some languages have no word for 'guilty' but ask people to take responsibility, and that aboriginal justice programmes suffer from 'macho ministers' who do not consult and have unrealistic expectations of speed - they aren't the only ones! The criminal justice system is not uniform: sometimes people have to be treated differently to achieve the same result (and vice versa - see Wright 1999: chapter 5). Similarly, Australia is not the only place where 'the state, caught in a shallow debate, fails to address the fundamental socially based flaws that arise from marginalisation and exclusion from power', as John Boersig says (p. 125). He adds that R J could be the way forward, but not if it fails to alter relationships of power based on race (or, he might have added, economic power).
In the section on victims Kathleen Daly, always a critical friend of R J, reports two studies. One examined conferencing, which scored highly on procedural justice, but only 30 to 60 per cent of victims reported restorative features such as an offender showing remorse or understanding, and many experienced some distress. After conferences which ended 'on a high' young people were significantly less likely to re-offend; and in those which did not, the victim was more likely to be distressed. This underlines that good training of facilitators is vital. The second study compared youth sex offending cases that went to court or to a conference. Victims who went to a conference were better off, because there was always an admission of guilt, than those who went to court. Conferences can revictimize, but less than court cases. Summing up, Daly says: 'The potential of R J is that it opens up [an] opportunity for those who have offended to admit what they have done, without the potential risks associated with a court-imposed sentence' (p. 165-6). But she adds an important proviso: without an intensive counselling programme for offenders, she would hesitate to support conferencing for these cases (pp. 171-2, n. 25). Other chapters deal with elder abuse, crimes of severe violence, and the role of insurance companies.
The last section, on evaluation, begins with big claims for the system-wide restorative justice initiative in Nova Scotia. They aim to get prosecutors to seek problem-solving options rather than aim solely for convictions; regular surveys of C J S personnel and community leaders show some increased understanding of R J, but it still needs more strategic planning. Programmes in Ottawa and Belgium are evaluated, and to conclude Howard Zehr proposes critical issues for evaluators.
This review cannot do justice to all fifteen papers. In sum, although the book doesn't really 'hang together', it contains some useful papers of general interest, and others on specialized topics which receive little coverage, and will therefore be a useful resource.
Martin Wright

Reference: Wright, M (1999) Restoring respect for justice. Winchester: Waterside Press.
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Football Hooliganism by Steve Frosdick and Peter Marsh (Willan, 2005)
Will I recommend this text to the one student a year, not always male, who chooses to do a dissertation on 'football hooliganism'? Yes. However, the text is not without problems.
The book derives from a fusion of the research work of Marsh and others and a distance learning course prepared by Frosdick based upon that and his teaching and consultancy about safety and security at grounds. It aims to become a course reader for such courses and would serve that function well but it does not 'seamlessly' (their claim) fuse the two strands. The distance learning aspect wins out, with even the introduction being given an introduction and regular signposting and summaries, tables and boxes.
That said it does perform the very useful function of highlighting - to stewards, police and security staff, the presumed recipients of the distance learning course - that hooliganism is a contested topic. It is not new; it is not solely a football issue nor confined to England - the cover photo appears to show French police confronting German fans.
Despite Marsh's past contribution to the debate, all the different theoretical debates are covered and no particular one singled out. Indeed, a common-sensical, no-nonsense demolition of some theories or arguments between theories is made. Thus 'figurationalists' are 'so-called' (p101) and both sociologists and psychologists are charged with being 'obtuse' and 'in some cases the writing has been pretentiously silly' (p85)!
Whilst this attitude rightly leads them to note a tendency to 'hooligan porn' in the accounts of reformed hooligans and academic voyeurs, it also leads them to dismiss any consideration of the genre. They declare, 'we shall not dignify it with further discussion' (p81). They are also precious about swear words.
This 'maiden uncle' approach means that the interest of younger students may not be engaged and ignores the reality of attending a match, or even catching highlights on the TV. They may wish to dismiss populist explanations but these too are part of the culture they are attempting to describe. They also want to eat their cake and still have it by prefacing the volume with an extensive quote from Buford's Among the Thugs. Separate chapters on popular representations of hooliganism (literature, film and music) and on media should be considered for a second edition.
Racism is raised throughout the book but issues of gender are largely taken for granted. The proper pan-European scope of the book is gained by a compression which leaves Scotland out save for occasional asides comparing them favourably with the English. A full discussion of Scotland is justified as sectarianism within the game there tells another story. That sectarianism is related to Ireland which gets no mention.
Despite the blurb claiming that the book is 'not wedded to a single theoretical perspective' it does actually favour 'friendly but firm' policing within a risk management approach to public safety.
Nic Groombridge, School of Communications, Culture and Creative Arts, St Mary's College, Strawberry Hill.
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The Dark Side of Democracy. Explaining Ethnic Cleansing. Mann, Michael (2005) Cambridge. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-53854-8
This is a very important book by Michael Mann, professor of sociology at the University of California, Los Angeles. It draws upon his previous publications addressing Sources Of Social Power and the Fascists both also published by Cambridge. In this book he also draws on an impressive amount of secondary sources from research by others who have researched ethnic cleansing and genocide. He ranges over colonial genocides, Armenia, the Nazi Holocaust, Cambodia, Yugoslavia and Rwanda, as well as considering the reasons why ethnic tensions in India and Indonesia did not amount to murderous cleansing.
Mann's main argument built on eight general theses is that genocide and ethnic cleansing is a modern phenomenon, indeed it is the 'Dark Side of Democracy'. He draws attention to where the demos of democracy is confused with the ethnos (the ethnic group). Conflict arises where two rival ethnonational movements each claims sovereignty over the same territory. For this to happen, Mann argues that it is necessary for the state to be factionalized and radicalised. He finds premeditation is rare and that escalation occurs when earlier less radical plans are frustrated. As each chapter unfolds, each genocide carefully dissected, Mann builds up an impressive body of evidence to support his view that escalation is neither the work or 'evil elites' nor 'primitive peoples', but rather that ordinary citizens get drawn in to committing acts of unbelievable evil. This is a controversial book, and there are ideas and conclusions that will be contested.
Mann's eight theses briefly stated are that:
Murderous cleansing is modern, because it is the dark side of democracy. Ethnic cleansing is essentially modern, and therefore we can expect to see more of it in the 21st Century, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. It has been an aspect of the creation of the modern 'nation-state'.
Ethnic hostility rises where ethnicity trumps class as the main form of social stratification, in the process capturing and channelling class-like sentiments toward ethno-nationalism. He points out that the Western media are dominated by ethnic strife while largely ignoring class struggles.
The danger zone of murderous cleansing is reached when (a) movements claiming to represent two fairly old ethnic groups both lay claim to their own state over all or part of the same territory and (b) this claim seems to them to have substantial legitimacy and some plausible chance of being implemented. The most dangerous areas have been ones which are bi-ethnic.
The brink of murderous cleansing is reached when one of two alternative scenarios plays out. The less powerful side is bolstered to fight rather than to submit by believing that aid will come from outside. Or, the stronger side believes it has such overwhelming military power and ideological legitimacy that it can force through its own cleansed state at little physical or moral risk to itself. Mann cites colonial settlers, and the Armenian and Jewish cases as examples.
Going over the brink into the perpetration of murderous cleansing occurs where the state exercising sovereignty over the contested territory has been factionalised and radicalized amid an unstable geopolitical environment that usually leads to war. One aspect of the radicalisation process is that in the unstable environment radicals emerge calling for tougher treatment of perceived ethnic enemies. Ethnic cleansings are at their most murderous when directed by states.
Murderous cleansing is rarely the initial intent of the perpetrators. It usually emerges as a kind of Plan C.
There are three main levels of perpetrator: (a) radical elites running party-states; (b) bands of militants forming violent paramilitaries; and (c) core constituencies providing mass though not majority popular support. Murderous cleansing is more likely to occur in environments favouring combinations of nationalism, statism and violence.
Ordinary people are brought by normal social structures into committing murderous ethnic cleansing. Mass killers of humankind are largely everyday human beings. According to Mann there is something in modernity releasing this particular evil on a mass scale. Mann also addresses those environments where the conflict is between two salvation religions.
Mann has provided a powerful analysis which will give much food for thought. It should help inform better policy formulation and intervention strategies. Mann's focus has been at the level of the nation state. I was left wondering whether many of his theses might not equally apply at the micro-level, especially in our increasingly multicultural cities, with forms of quiet ethnic cleansing occurring leading to mono-ethnic areas. This book should be read by everybody with a concern for the ethnic cleansing that now forms a staple part of our media diet.
Tom Williamson
University of Portsmouth

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Genetic Testing and the Criminal Law. Chalmers, Don (2005) (Ed.) London. UCL Press. ISBN 1-84472-016-0
This is a timely book, although it has been a long time in preparation, with many of the national country reports on DNA having been presented at the XVth Congress of the International Academy of Comparative Law held in Bristol in 1998. Don Chalmers and his colleagues have done a good job in editing these reports so that they can be presented in an accessible way, whilst still respecting the wide differences in legislation that applies to DNA in each of the thirteen countries studied. The national country reports are written by very eminent contributors and this make this book a very authoritative account of the point these countries have reached in the way their criminal justice systems deals with DNA evidence.
Whilst DNA profiling can be seen as the latest great advance in criminal investigations since the advent of finger printing and blood group testing and it has proved very effective in securing convictions, it should also be noted that DNA has also had as big an effect in excluding suspects from an investigation and securing the acquittal of innocents. Scheck et al and the Innocence Projects in the USA now have data on well over a hundred cases where people convicted of serious crimes have been totally exonerated on the basis of DNA evidence (Scheck, Neufeld and Dwyer 2000).
DNA has not been without its debates and this book once again provides an authoritative account of the debates about scientific accuracy, test reliability and the heated discussions about statistical probabilities. It demonstrates how these issues have been addressed in various jurisdictions and provides a helpful account of the relevant jurisprudence.
As more countries begin to develop an interest in DNA and create DNA databases, this book provides a good benchmark. It also leaves open some of the unresolved issues, such as the one in the United Kingdom where notwithstanding Article 8 of the Human Rights Act 1998, there is now under consideration a universal database placing an obligation on all British men, women and children to donate samples. This would provide the British police and government with the most extensive powers of any jurisdiction in the world for the collection, retention and utilisation of DNA samples. One is left to speculate about how this would fit with the government's other intention of introducing identity cards with biometric data. Perhaps it is an inevitability and future generations will think little of it, and consider it a reasonable and proportionate intrusion into their privacy, if it contributes to greater safety in a risk conscious and insecure world.
DNA testing has revolutionised investigation at the local level in England and Wales and the DNA revolution is not finished yet. This book is a useful resource for academics and practitioners with an interest in DNA and criminal law.
Tom Williamson
Visiting Professor
Institute of Criminal Justice Studies,
University of Portsmouth

REFERENCE
Scheck, B., Neufeld, P. and Dwyer, J. (2000) Actual Innocence. Five Days to Execution, And Other Dispatches From The Wrongly Convicted. New York. Doubleday.
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Understanding Drugs, Alcohol and Crime. Trevor Bennett and Kay Holloway, Maidenhead: Open University Press /McGraw-Hill, 2005
This book by Trevor Bennett and Kay Holloway is part of the Crime and Justice series published by the Open University Press.
It is divided into nine chapters which address issues around medicalization, criminalisation and prevention of drug use. This text is mainly a review of the existing UK research literature on drug misuse and crime. A particular emphasis is on the drugs-crime connection which is discussed extensively in chapter 5. According to the authors, there are several different ways in which crime and drugs might be connected. The first two are self explanatory and they are described in the text as the 'drug-use-causes-crime' model and the 'crime-causes-drug-use' model. The other three possible models are the reciprocal model which is based on the idea that the relationship between drug use and crime is bi-directional, the common-cause model which argues that crime is not an effect of drug use and that drug use is not an effect of crime, and finally the coincidence model which proposes that drug use and crime are not causally connected.
The key theories which suggest an explanation of the relationship between drugs and crime are also clearly examined, the main problem being, as the authors point out, not so much in finding theories but in making sense of them. Nevertheless, Bennett and Holloway succeed in offering a clear and concise account of the often contradictory 'discourse' on crime and drugs. The argument that drug use might cause crime, and crime might cause drug use is not simply tautology. In fact, by the confident style in which the authors approach the matter, it is fairly clear that they believe that there is no inconsistency in the idea that drug use might sometimes cause crime and crime might sometimes cause drug use.
The causal connection between the use of alcohol and crime, however, is not explored in the same breadth. The authors warn the reader about the pharmacological effects of alcohol in precipitating criminal behaviour, in other words how alcohol misuse could be a contributory factor in stimulating aggression which in turn leads to various kinds of street disorder and street violence associated with drinking.
What makes this book particularly interesting is the refreshingly non judgmental presentation which conveys the essence of very important issues in contemporary society. Therefore, this is an ideal text not only for students but also for policy makers, drugs and alcohol counsellors, treatment agencies and everyone interested in doing research on drugs, alcohol and crime.

Nicoletta Policek
Division of Sociology
University of Abertay, Dundee

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Sentencing in the Age of Information: From Faust to Macintosh. Aas, K.F. (2005).
From the title of the book I was not sure what to expect and was pleasantly surprised to read a very interesting text in relation to the way technology is seen by the author to be influencing aspects of the Criminal Justice System.
However, there were two main aspects to the book which any potential readers should be aware of. The first is that of the part of the title 'From Faust to Macintosh'. It is not until the final chapter of the book that this is explained as there is little reference to Faust or Macintosh in the body of the text. Secondly, one of the main frames of reference throughout the book is the work of Foucault and, unless the reader has an awareness of his writings, it may be difficult to follow in parts.
These two factors should not, however, deter those interested in this field from reading this book.
The first chapter sets the scene in discussing sentencing reforms, within various theoretical frameworks, which have been introduced in response to increasing criticisms of any judicial decisions. The author focuses on the United States and their attempt to standardise sentencing decisions by use of tables arguing that this method takes no account of any other factors other than the crime itself. The work in other countries where guidelines have been introduced to assist judges, not make the decisions for them, are also discussed.
The introduction of technology into the justice system and the suggested effects on judicial decision making is the focus of the following chapters. Chapter 2 is very thought provoking in suggesting that computer mediated communication takes place in 'a disembodied world' (p.43) and that this results in those making decisions feeling less and punishing more. In an attempt to standardise the process of sentencing for transparency and consistency no longer is the experience of the decision makers of use.
It is also argued that the reasons for criminal behaviour are no longer of interest, the main focus is on the management of the decision making process. Aas states that this results in a loss of context and the offender is lost in the world of audits and performance targets.
Chapter 4 considers the outcome from uniformity in sentencing. It is written with the framework of Foucault and often reads like a critique of his work, and argues that people are complex and cannot be understood just in terms of their acts which is what happens when behaviours are deconstructed to enable data collection for use with technology. This practice leads, it is argued, to the loss of the individual and an adjustment to the images of offenders within that possible in the use of categories and coding for input into data bases
The author concludes that the use of technology in this way changes the question of whether a sentencing decision was appropriate or just to one of whether it followed standards and procedures.
A sobering end to an interesting book.
Dr Sue Thomas, Senior Psychologist, IMPACT, HMYOI Thorn Cross, Warrington, Cheshire.
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The Effects of Imprisonment. Alison Liebling and Shadd Maruna (Eds) (Willan Publishing, 2005)
Liebling and Maruna have written an incredibly powerful and robust text on imprisonment. It is, without doubt, a tour de force.
Simply, their aim is encapsulated in the title. However, the philosophical tensions of such a production are made clear- are they legitimising or researching, what is, a contested entity. For such a topic, the text is suitably broad with an appropriate range of commentators, topics and perspectives. The impetus seems to be the retreat of serious criminology, that which questions, studies and criticises, from the prison gates. As the authors rightly point out, "pain has consequences" -this needs to be studied. And whilst this is grounded in an appropriate historical context, I was a little uneasy that they did not travel further than the 1950's in search of foundation. Furthermore, prison is painful and contested but it can and has shown productive outcomes (James, 2005)- this perspective was lacking.
Nonetheless for me, who has only been in prison voluntarily and free to leave at the end of the day, felt that the pains of imprisonment were captured by this book. Because of its breadth it would genuinely be appropriate for students, practitioners and policymakers and will, quite simply, be the text referred to on this subject. Whilst all the chapters contributed something unique I will discuss only a few here.
Irwin and Owen's chapter on harm covers the range of potential harms that prison can impose. For example, psychological and medical harms are addressed and post-imprisonment harm is explained. The more subtle effects of imprisonment, for example, economic exploitation, are also addressed. For me the chapter lacked sufficient specificity but it would provide an appropriate starting point if I was new to this particular topic.
King's chapter on the effects of Supermax custody is powerful, and a wake-up call to those countries free from them. The effects are shown to be wide-ranging and surprisingly mixed in outcome. Nonetheless King shows these institutions as having an impact upon prisoner, staff, system and society. From Grendon to Supermax - one has to wonder, where did it all go wrong. King's paints a thoughtful and reasoned picture based on research studies he has undertaken and his considerable experience in this area. This is a singularly unique and important chapter and must be read.
But to really drill into the prison walls - beyond administrative criminology's obvious and banal - we must surely understand how prison functions. Prison is a social institution populated by social actors and this is at the heart of Crewe's chapter on the sociology of imprisonment. To really understand the effects should we not understand the society those effects will operate within? At the heart of this society is the "inmate code", a fluid entity that has always existed but shaped by the broader culture and specific facets of inmate life. Crewe's study teases out the subtleties of this, and this understanding provides a context with which to consider the effects of imprisonment. In light of this perhaps this important chapter should have been situated earlier in the text.
There are many other important chapters in this book. Liebling's on prison suicide, Johnsons's on the prison's place in contemporary society and Arnold's on the effects of prison work are some of the vital contributions that this book makes to the debate on imprisonment. Hans Toch provides a thoroughly appropriate and thoughtful conclusion to the text and whilst philosophical in nature, manages to signpost concrete ways to humanising a potentially de-humanising experience.
This is, without doubt, an important and timely text. It is timely because in the age of hyper penal expansion we are reminded that prison does have consequences beyond those intended, on those, perhaps, least able to withstand them. As the authors state, pain has consequences, this text helps us fulfil our duty to understand those.
James, E. (2005). The Home Stretch: From Prison to Parole. Guardian Books: London.
Peter Hamerton
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Organised Crime. Alan Wright. Willan Publishing
The well used saying, 'Never judge a book by its cover' is perfect advice for potential readers of this particular book, although I do wish that the publishers of criminological texts and the like would take a bit more effort in producing graphically pleasing covers that would do proper justice to their authors work.
As a professional analyst working in a law enforcement environment, I read through the course of a week large amounts of data, information and research material in order to try and make sense of complex law based issues. It has been refreshing therefore, during breaks from the norm, to read the work of Alan Wright, who in this tome has written in my opinion an absolute gem of a book.
He has written a book in the style which many should aspire to and many a break became extended into a Spanish style lunch of more than the regulation 45 minutes.
Nine chapters and a conclusionary piece make up this work, but the key to understanding the motivations of the author lie within the preface and the introduction as it is here that he maps out his intentions to the reader of what the book is and is not.
The danger in reading the introduction is that the reader will be selective in the chapters that they think they will be most interested in. People doing research work within academia are notorious for not reading complete works and cutting and pasting selected pieces into 'end note' styled software for inclusion in later dissertations and thesis.
I would urge any reader of this book to go just that little bit further and read the all of it from front to back because then they will have experienced one very well researched piece of work which is exceptionally well referenced and is written in a non-condescending style which will appeal to newcomers to criminological texts as well as the more well-read amongst our fraternity.
I am not going to plunder through the authors work on a chapter by chapter basis as that would be like going to the cinema to see a much anticipated film and then someone standing up and shouting ' the hero gets killed and his girlfriend marries his best friend.'
I'm not going to be that person standing up at the front, but what I will say that Wright approaches every angle of organised crime issues from a global perspective and covers a great deal of ground within each of the chapters.
These chapters are like having a good meal, you've enjoyed the starter and your appetite is then whetted for what is about to follow and the chef doesn't let you down.
Readers of the book, if they read it all the way through, will have a greater understanding of organised crime without their viewpoints being skewed by the journalistic entertainment we see throughout many avenues of the media.
It honestly throws light on subject matter which to newcomers thought they might never get access to. In short the book is a credit to Alan Wright and to the developing styles of criminological work which must surely start to attain this sort of publication level.
Gary Birchall
South Yorkshire Police

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International Criminal Law Deskbook. John Grant & J Craig Barker. Cavendish Publishing. ISBN 1 85941 979 8
In their introduction Grant and Barker state that international criminal law is the growth area of international law and who can argue against that, with the International Criminal Court, ad hoc war crimes tribunals, internationalised criminal courts, various measures against terrorism, and, not least, the Iraqi Special Tribunal all having come into existence quite recently. This book brings together a good number of core documents in this area, 79 in total, varying from the first Geneva Convention that deals with wounded soldiers in battle, to the document that made it possible for the so-called Lockerbie trial to be held in the Netherlands. In addition, the editors provide for introductions to these documents. They are brief and mainly descriptive, and I concede that in a book like this not much else is needed.
The aim of the book is straightforward: "it is intended to be a comprehensive collection of the core documents in the area. […] The focus is entirely on international instruments and […] on those parts of those instruments that bear upon international criminal law" (p. vii). You cannot fault the selection. The documents selected are organised in two parts, Substantive and Procedural International Criminal Law. Substantive Part I deals with Laws of War, Crimes Against Humanity, Terrorism and Miscellaneous Crimes. In Part II feature Tribunals, Extradition, and Mutual Assistance. The distinction between substantive and procedural is obviously artificial: the Yugoslavia Tribunal (ICTY), for instance, carries both substantive and procedural elements in its Statute, and the same can be said about a good number of other documents. It would however, be unfair to hold that against both editors. At least the classification is comprehensive, albeit obviously not perfect.
Looking through the contents of the book, the oldest document we find is the Treaty of Versailles, and for those interested in the history of war crimes tribunals, surprisingly relevant. Chronologically the next one is the Slavery Convention from 1926, whereas the first, as it were, flurry of documents follows World War II. Looking at the volume of documents alone, it is easy to see that the New Millennium is altogether of a different pace than the 20th century. In total 21 documents date from the last six years and include anti-terrorism conventions, but also measures against cybercrime, organised crime and the trafficking of arms and people. It also seems to highlight a shift in emphasis: towards regulation in the area of transnational and international offending, rather than predominantly on the regulation of warfare. The Charter of the Iraqi Special Tribunal is worthy of closer inspection, and it is good to see that included as well.
This is a book that is difficult to evaluate. Of course the subject matter is important, and criminology should concern itself more with crimes against humanity and international criminal law. However, this book does not further the field in any shape or form. Accordingly, it is solely of interest of those who see the benefit of having all these documents in one handy place, rather than having to find their way to them via internet or library searches. Its utility is not so much its content per se as the fact that it brings it together in one so-called 'deskbook'. As some of my teaching is in this area, I do find that very handy. Whether there are enough people like me to make the book a commercial success is probably a case of wait and see.
Francis Pakes
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Criminal Justice. Lucia Zedner. Oxford University Press. 2004, ISBN 0 19 876366 2
Lucia Zedner sets out to discuss Criminal Justice arrangements with the objective, "less to provide detailed descriptions than to inquire into their role and nature" (p. 205). Zedner's starting point is that the continuing stream of laws, guidelines, initiatives, drives and policies is liable to lead to academic scrutiny of the details of criminal justice arrangements whereas we should not lose sight of the complex and contradictory nature of the enterprise as whole. We should therefore take a step back, zoom out, as it were, to observe the criminal justice system as if it were for the first time. The book poses simple questions and unsurprisingly (although Zedner seems to disagree on that front) they demand rather complex answers. What is crime? What is the role of punishment? Can we predict the changes that criminal justice will next undergo?
In a charming and erudite fashion, Zedner teases out the meaning of familiar institutions and bodies, and in doing so, provides the reader with fresh and challenging perspectives. As seasoned academics, positioned on the sidelines to watch the politics of crime control unfold, cynicism easily sets in and genuine curiosity takes a back seat. Zedner has a good stab at re-awaking that sense of wonder as she reminds us that criminal justice remains an amazing enterprise.
As you might expect from Zedner, the book is comparative throughout. Alternative examples of doing justice, via reconciliation, arbitration or adjudication occur throughout. Initial examples include conflict resolution by the Ming-Waghi peoples in Papua New Guinea and the use of public reprimands as practiced by the Inuit. Later, possibly more obvious examples include South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Committee to demonstrate a novel paradigm in post-conflict justice with an emphasis on truth finding and amnesty rather than on culpability and punishment, and the Netherlands, as the classic case of tolerance to deviance (although Zedner might have mentioned how that's changed since Downes's seminal work from 1988).
This is a beautiful book. Although seemingly addressing the simple questions of criminal justice, there is no doubt that the issues that prompt those simple questions are profound. Zedner writes lucidly, analyses sharply but also summarises complex material in an accessible manner. I will recommend this book to my postgraduate students in criminology: once you know how the system operates this book is valuable as an investigation into what it actually all means.
Downes, D. (1988). Contrasts in tolerance: Post-war penal policy in the Netherlands and England and Wales. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Francis Pakes
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Understanding victims and restorative justice. James Dignan.Maidenhead: Open University Press. 2005, ISBN 0 335 209793[
The government claims to be 'rebalancing' the criminal justice system in favour of victims. Restorative justice has been accused, not always wrongly, of being too offender-oriented, so a book focusing on the victim's point of view is welcome. It will make an excellent textbook, with subject and author indexes, suggestions for further reading, a glossary, and hundreds of meticulous footnotes; one wonders whether some of them could not have been eased into the text.
Dignan starts with victimology: how crime impacts mainly on the poor, for example, and how victims of corporate offenders are often neglected. He might have added that victims of fraud are sometimes caught by their hope of getting something for nothing. Policymaking, as Dignan describes, is largely based on a welfare approach. This first surfaced in the Criminal Injuries Compensation Scheme, a major reform, but based on the stereotype of the 'ideal', blameless victim and therefore excluding those with previous convictions or an undesirable way of life. It excludes victims of offences against the Factory Acts. He could have mentioned also the unfair way in which a person receiving means-tested benefits can lose them on receiving a large compensation award. There is an account of the development of organizations for victims, including Victim Support, Women's Aid and Rape Crisis (but omitting the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children). Dignan rightly says that a fully restorative approach should include victims whose offenders are not caught, which restorative justice advocates often forget.
Efforts have been made to assist victims as they encounter the criminal justice system, and there have been improvements, but inviting them to make 'personal statements' that do not affect the sentence has caused confusion. It does not provide dialogue between victim and offender, which should be on offer in any comprehensive plan for victims. Dignan usefully summarizes varieties of restorative justice, which will be useful to newcomers to the subject; he traces the development of victim-offender mediation and different forms of conferencing, though he says little about the untidy (to put it mildly) way in which they were introduced in England. He rightly comments that some, such as citizens' panels in Vermont and referral order panels in England, do not adequately involve victims. A further dimension is the involvement of the community, and he usefully analyses the tensions between empowerment of the victim and of the community (with a discussion of the meaning of that all-too-flexible word); but there is only a footnote reference to the creative programme in Zwelethemba, South Africa, which combines involvement of victims and community and an element of tackling the social criminogenic factors that the restorative process brings to light.
Even those who are familiar with the development of restorative justice will find useful the discussion, in the final chapter, of philosophical differences in the way restorative justice relates to the criminal justice system. Community involvement entails some form of oversight, probably judicial, as a safeguard against unreasonable outcomes. It also implies the use of stand-alone NGO mediation services. Dignan rightly observes that these often struggle to attract enough cases, and funds, to make them viable. He infers that therefore this model is not viable, and mediation should therefore be mainstreamed into the criminal justice system. This is questionable, however; it is equally arguable that they could provide a good, comprehensive service if the government enables it to do so, as it has done with Victim Support, and that this moreover would strengthen its compliance with restorative ideals, rather than their distortion into a retributive mould. Otherwise there is a danger that people will say of restorative justice, as G K Chesterton said of Christianity, that it has not been tried and found wanting, but found difficult and not tried.
Martin Wright
Board Member, European Forum for Restorative Justice

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Homicide by the Rich and Famous: A Century of Prominent Killers, by Gini Graham Scott, Praeger Publishers 2005
 
Psychological Jurisprudence: Critical Explorations in Law, Crime and Society.
(ed.) Bruce A. Arrigo, State University of New York Press: 2004
In a sense, reviewing these2 books provides an experience in comparing “apples and oranges.” Gini Graham Scott is a JD who also holds a PhD in Sociology, and who writes books that read like novels, but provide legal analysis and case studies in juxtaposition, following a tight thematic approach. Dr. Bruce A. Arrigo is a prolific academic who both writes and edits books on a variety of criminal justice and criminological issues, and he has compiled a small collection of authors and writings.
Scott’s book truly appealed to the former appellate lawyer in me. I was sceptical at first about her chapter organization of homicide (or, as in the case of Claus von Bulow, attempt) cases by categories of motive, method “hired help,” “families and friends in high places,” “police, power and the media,” “legal power,” “kids who kill,” and “losing it” n cases of “some of the rich who have become killers in the course of falling away from a life of luxury” (p. xi). That said, the thematic approach works well, and serves to draw distinctions not only between the rich and not, but between the paired cases in each chapter.
Although it is possible to read the book from cover to cover (and it is indeed a page turner, even to one not schooled in law or advanced academics), I found myself lured into reading the cases that had either had relevance in my legal work life (such as “A Matter of Love and Honor: The Case of Roland Burnham Molineux, New York, New York 1898-1902 – a case which gave rise to the still oft-cited and frequently litigated Molineux trial error in New York courts regarding prior bad acts brought in to show propensity to commit a particular crime) or those I have been using in my current academic life (for example, the case of Lizzie Borden and the case of Claus von Bulow, which inspired Harvard Law Professor Alan Dershowitz to pen the 1986 book Reversal of Fortune: Inside the von Bulow Case, which in turn became a large scale Hollywood movie starring Jeremy Irons). There are famous cases, and some that are perhaps now less so (such as the 1909-1911 case of Wardlow Sisters of East Orange, New Jersey, which I was drawn to because I now teach in South Orange, a mile away).
I do not want to minimize the fact that the book is well conceived, well researched, and well written – rather I want to say that it is also a good read, the sort of book that I might give as a holiday gift to a colleague in the practice or judicial administration (or a fan) of the criminal law, as well as to a colleague engaged in comparative research or whose methodology focuses on case studies.
Arrida’s book specifically targets an academic audience (though it invites readers from forensic psychology, criminology and criminal justice, sociology, and law). Similarly to Scott, Arrida has the mission of “focusing on selected, although key, controversies … and exploring each on the basis of at least one critical theoretical frame of reference,” (p. viii) with the goal of learning “something more or something other about whether (and for whom) justice is advanced by prevailing forensic psychological policies and practices” (p. viii). Thus, similarly to Scott, Arrida seeks to critically juxtapose, albeit with a specific and academic agenda (targeted toward upper level college students, graduate students, and faculty).
Arrida’s collection pointedly provides a radical agenda for psychological jurisprudence, drawing from diverse areas of psychoanalysis, feminist theory, political economic analysis, post-modernism, and other areas. Offering both senior and junior authors, I found the piece by Shadd Maruna, “Is Rationalization Good for the Soul? Resisting ‘Responsibilization’ in Corrections and the Courts,” to be especially thought-provoking in the ways it drew out the tensions between what Maruna calls “blame central to the courtroom drama of traditional jurisprudence and corrections,” (p. 194) and the processes and functions of restorative justice, some of which might result in further stigmatization, higher rates of recidivism and additional criminal liability – or what is termed in the abstract as “condemnation,” rather than “absolution.” (p.179).
In closing, these two volumes, which target different – though perhaps overlapping -- audiences, each offer readers interesting arguments. Both have superb source-lists, though they are presented differently (Scott presents annotation of endnotes, whereas Arrida’s authors have notes and substantial bibliographies at the end of each chapter). Both books seek to set key topics and cases against frames of interdisciplinary perspective. Both also seek to invite readership beyond their primary targeted audiences. Since both books are excellent, both should succeed.
Demetra M. Pappas, Assistant Professor of Sociology and Anthropology, Seton Hall University
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Alternatives to prison: options for an insecure society. Ed. by Anthony Bottoms.
Sue Rex and Gwen Robinson.
Willan Publishing, 2004
If the government wants evidence-based penal policy, now it can have it. A charitable trust, the Esmée Fairbairn Foundation, instituted the Coulsfield inquiry into alternatives to imprisonment, which in turn commissioned this research - a good way of making policy. The researchers are very aware of the social and political context, as is shown by the subtitle and by the attention they give to public opinion. They cover almost every aspect of non-custodial sanctions, on the basis of research findings. The editors have sharp things to say, however, about the misuse of evidence; for example the report by Civitas advocating more imprisonment does not take full account of complexities and is ‘wholly unconvincing on technical grounds’ (p. 71, 78).
A review cannot do justice to all sixteen chapters, each containing information which policy-makers should be glad to use. A common theme is the importance of relationships: there may be a place for 41-page risk assessments, but people need sources of friendship (Judith Rumgay, p. 252), motivation rather than control (p. 259) and a relationship with their supervisor (Gwen Robinson and James Dignan, p. 322, 332), rather than the controlling managerialism implied by the appalling name ‘National Offender Management Service’ An American study of electronic monitoring found that, in isolation from other services, it had ‘no detectable impact on recidivism’ (Mike Nellis, p. 237).
The chapters on public opinion, including original research for this volume, give useful findings about public readiness to see offenders as ‘redeemable’; unfortunately the questions were framed in a ‘tough – lenient’ context, so they did not explore the reparative dimension. Even so, it was found that restitution and compensation reduce punitive tendencies, and ‘giving something back’ or ‘earned redemption’ appeals to the public (Shadd Maruna and Anna King, p. 101, 104). Peter Raynor (p. 217) also points to the value of ‘visible reparation’ to emphasise the positive contribution of ex-offenders.
Now that community service has been re-named ‘community punishment’, Gill McIvor points out that the more punitive it is, the more it removes incentives to develop meaningful options (p 167). On restorative justice, she says that it may have too many aims (like criminal justice!); discussing research, she does not refer to the chaotic way that the pilot projects were introduced without waiting for research results. It is arguable that reconviction rates did not improve because the projects did not implement restorative justice fully: the implementation is flawed, not the concept. Like other contributors, she treats it as one more disposal, not as a fundamentally different philosophy of responding to crime. It would have been useful to refer to the innovative Zwelethemba programme in South Africa which is making a theory-based effort to put an integrated, community-based model of restorative justice into practice (Roche 2003).
Peter Raynor regrets the loss of effective social work skills because of the separation of probation training from social work. He points out that the Carter report did not consider pre-sentence reports; he could have pointed to the way they were used in California in the 1960s as a way of promoting probation and, crucially, ensuring that funds saved from imprisonment were transferred to probation programmes (Wright 1982: 152-6). Other chapters deal with substance-misusing offenders, persistent offenders, and ‘difference’ (mentally disordered, ethnic minorities, and female offenders). Martin Wasik takes a fairly conventional approach to sentencing; he points out that sentencing in the community must not interfere with the offender’s work commitments, but does not mention that this makes prison all the more damaging by comparison. One omission is the research by the charity Natural Justice showing effects of diet on behaviour; but admittedly no clear programme has been proposed as yet for applying these findings in practice (Gesch et al., 2002).
In their conclusions the editors make practical proposals for policy. Some, regrettably, have been made and ignored many times before, but this authoritative reminder is useful. Imposing too many conditions makes breaches, and custody, more likely. So does the option of short custodial sentences followed by supervision (shades of the ‘short, sharp shock!). Managerialism fragments different functions of working with an offender, rather than enable one person to build a relationship (what happened to generic social work?). The social environment in which offenders are placed plays a crucial role – perhaps this point deserves more than a footnote (p. 423). This will be an invaluable source book for students and researchers and – dare one hope? – for policy-makers. For a pithy summary of what’s wrong with current policy, it’s hard to beat this from Hazel Kemshall and colleagues (p. 357): ‘Mere compulsion is a weak and temporary control’.
References
Gesch, C B, S M Hammond, S E Hampson, A Eves and M Y Crowder (2002) ‘Influence of supplementary vitamins, minerals and fatty acids on the anti-social behaviour of young adult prisoners: randomised, placebo-controlled trial.’ British Journal of Psychiatry, (181), 22-28.
Roche, D (2003) Accountability in restorative justice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Wright, M (1982) Making good: prisons, punishment and beyond. London: Burnett Books
Martin Wright
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Criminal Law (4 th ed). Nicola Padfield.
Oxford University Press 2005
Criminal law can be a difficult subject to teach given the abstruse nature of some of its concepts. However, Nicola Padfield’s approach has made this task much easier. She provides a clear guide for both student and teacher alike through the sometimes labyrinthine complexities of the subject.
All the fundamental legal principles are covered such as the conduct element of a crime (actus reus), criminal states of mind (mens rea), incapacity defences, general defences, accomplices and inchoate offences. She also examines a number of offences including homicide and theft. Her approach is part text, part case study, providing illustrations of concepts and useful, concise accounts of recent academic commentary and current proposals for law reform.
All of this is what one might expect in any legal textbook on the subject. However, Padfield goes one step further in that she also explores the wider implications of the principles and offences covered. For example in her consideration of the defence of duress she emphasises the current uncertainties and inconsistencies in its availability in different offences such as murder. She then goes on to introduce a more philosophical approach to the questions raised, asking the reader to consider whether or not the right to life is absolute.
This is what makes the book stand out. Not only do students enjoy discussing these kinds of issues but it is also important that they see the connection between rather dry legal principles and their application in real life. It was also good to see the subject of crimes against the environment covered in a separate chapter, thus providing a slightly different topic to those usually included in such texts. Students care about these kinds of issues and therefore find such discussion particularly stimulating.
As a teacher I also found useful the self-test questions posed at the end of each chapter. These pull together the main topics covered and give some practice in the answering of problem questions which are central to assessing students’ progress in the subject. The summary at the beginning of each chapter and the suggested further reading were also helpful. I found this book to be an extremely useful and well-constructed text. It is written concisely and clearly and approaches the fundamental legal principles covered in a stimulating and thought provoking way. I see from the author’s details that she is a qualified barrister and sits as a Recorder in the Crown Court. Clearly she has applied her practical experience to the writing of this book and I have no hesitation in recommending it to students and teachers alike.
Diana Bretherick
Institute of Criminal Justice Studies
University of Portsmouth
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Crime Policy in Europe: Good Practices and promising examples.
Council of Europe Publishing: December 2004
This English-language volume contains 13 promising examples where crime policy has had a positive impact with criminal justice reforms being successfully implemented. The authors present experience from Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland. They acknowledge that many of the interventions and policies have not been thoroughly evaluated but present them for english speaking readers as worthy of consideration when looking for new policies. In many ways it is mainland Europe’s answer to the various meta analyses of criminal justice interventions that have been published in Anglo-Saxon countries over the last few years.
The book starts with a theoretical article from Pierre Tournier considering the problems that occur when evaluating policy. He takes the introduction of electronic monitoring into the French justice system as an example and lists various pitfalls that one can fall into when making such an evaluation. Such comments give a useful critical approach but lack the positive structure for evaluations that has become part of Anglo-Saxon thinking, most recently laid out in a Home Office publication.
Ribeau, Killias and Aebi consider the long-term effects of heroin behaviour on patients’ offending behaviour in the light of Swiss experience in prescribing heroin as a form of treatment for serious drug addiction. The method of evaluation is described in detail along with findings which show that the trials with heroin prescription contribute to an appreciable reduction in crime among patients even in the longer term. This is a policy that could be followed with advantage in other countries with similar heroin use.
Haller, Pelikan and Smutny look at the impact of the Austrian protection against Domestic Violence Act 1996. They describe the circumstances that led to the act, its pragmatic construcion and its effectiveness as evaluated by the Institute of Conflict Research. Results include a much lower use of the Act’s powers by rural police: a much higher use amongst the immigrant population and the difficulties of the police in enforcing orders. This research supports the value of pilotting such work in a sample of geographical areas before it is rolled out throughout a country.
The book moves on to look at mediation and other community sanctions. Pelikan looks at how the recommendation of the Council of Europe Committee on mediation in penal matters has impacted on victim-offender mediation in 22 European countries. The chapter summaries how the recommendation has sometimes served as an important instrument, in many countries has mainly influenced NGOs and those outside the criminal justice system, and in other countries has had little influence. This is one of the few examples of research looking at whether an international instrument has had its planned effect, and should be a precursor of many more, as it is likely that many such instruments take up much time and resources in preparation, but lead to little added value in the long run.
Two small-scale examples of research into the effect of new community sanctions follow: Avertsen gives some examples of victim-offender mediation for serious crimes: and Delbos describes a local experiment in France in using community services a means of restoring civic dialogue after offending.
Wider considerations follow, with several chapters on trends in sentencing, mainly in statistical terms: Valkova And Hulmakova describe how the Czech Republic moved, with the fall in communism, from custody to alternative forms of punishment, including the development of Probation and Mediation Service. Von Hofer deals with the practical abolition of imprisonment for non payment of fines in Sweden and shows how alternative provisions do not reduce the voluntary payment of fines. Dunkel examines a similar situation in Germany: the reduction in imprisoned fine defaulters in one German Land (Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania.) Lappi-Seppala lays out the case of the long-term reduction of the prison population in Finland since the Second World War: although this is well-documented already, it is important to keep reminding criminologists as well as politicians that the level of prison in any country is not dependent on the level of crime but is a political artifact, usually chosen by politicians as a response to media and public concern.
The final part of the book deals with the prison system, again in mainly statistical terms. Dunkel shows how day leave and prison temporary release in Germany have reduced tensions and improved rehabilitation. De Leo and colleagues, in a mainly descriptive article, consider how the Italian judicial system deals with persons who co-operate with the authorities, including witnesses. Kensey looks at the French prison population, especially how reoffending has been affected by Presidential amnesties, collective pardons and the introduction of conditional release, there again showing how politicians are able to reduce the level of the prison populations without very much public or media reaction.
Few of these articles are actually evaluations as such, and those that attempt to quantify the situation they examine do so mainly in statistical terms, ather than anything more formal or structured. Only one or two of the chapters describe an evaluation as understood in Anglo-Saxon terms. Although the lack of formal evaluation is strange to UK and US criminologists, most of the changes described in this book are clearly very important in terms of diversion from custody, improvements in community punishments and improvements in mediation, and deserve to read in their own terms, even without any formal evaluation.
This is a book to be read by politicians and criminologists alike. By doing so they will obtain a wider awareness of what can be done and a recognition that crime, fear of crime and prison populations are not simply unavoidable characteristics of a modern society, but rather political artifacts that can be changed if the political will is there to do so. They also show that useful developments in criminal justice can come out of Europe and perhaps will reduce the UK emphasis on copying what goes on in North America.
Chris Lewis
University of Portsmouth
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Clues from Killers: Serial Murder and CrimeScene Messages Praeger 2004.
Gibson DC
I was disappointed with this book which I feel ‘missed an opportunity’. The author states that he researched “more than two hundred such cases”(p1) with the book considering ten. I was expecting, and looking forward to, reading an analysis of the communication made by the perpetrators of the offences which did not materialise.
The author states that the purpose of the book was “to enhance our understanding of the communication of serial killers”(p2).
He also states that “in this book I organise, analyse, and integrate the findings of numerous studies into a cohesive narrative”(p4), I do not feel that this was achieved. What the book delivered was a descriptive account of information most of which is readily available from other sources. Whilst some of the copies of the original communication may not previously have been in the public domain the content of many have. There was little, if no, attempt to use this communication to help us understand anything about the perpetrator or their offences.
For each of the ten case studies the reader is given a description of the offence which is taken from various secondary sources readily available in texts and on websites, followed by details of the communication made by the perpetrator. The author then talks about, rather than gives an analysis, of the message. For example, when discussing The Son of Sam we get details about the construction of the letters, the number of lines etc. but no explanation as to why this may be significant not adding value to our understanding of the offences or the offender. Staying with the same case, Gibson tells the reader that the notes are important due to the structure but there is no attempt to offer any explanation as to why, and the reader is left with no greater understanding or insight which I found extremely frustrating.
I do feel, in places, that Gibson ‘lost his way’ with this book. We get information about the type of wood the coffin of the victim was made of and the inscription - what is the relevance of this. When talking about the Zodiac there is a paragraph which ‘profiles’ the perpetration is this Gibson’s view, and if so, is he qualified to offer this account and if not, whose is it?
As stated I do feel this could have been an interesting text, which is why I was keen to review it. However, I found it extremely frustrating to read and, as stated in the first two lines, was a ‘missed opportunity’.
Sue Thomas PS Plus 2 (Prison service)
Bristol
BS8 1TZ
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Crime Science: New Approaches to Preventing and Detecting Crime.
Smith, M.J and Tilley, N Willan 2005
The introduction to this book draws attention to the “apopleptic rage” which the advent of “crime science” has instigated amongst some criminologists. It sets out immediately to defend itself against some of the accusations of the enraged.
The opening chapter by Gloria Laycock deals with what is meant by the term “Crime science”. It seems to focus mainly on the application of scientific method to crime prevention, distancing itself from the discipline of criminology which is seen as principally pre-occupied with the study of offending behaviour and (by implication) with a non-scientific approach.
Personally, I take issue with this because it implies the tackling of offending behaviour is less susceptible to scientific appraisal. Whilst I would accept that scientific appraisal of offending behaviour has been extremely weak in the UK, this is not true world-wide and certainly should not be so weak in the UK. Instead of accepting such a status quo, the argument should be for application of crime science to offending behaviour as well as crime prevention.
Nevertheless, Gloria Laycock does expound clearly the origins and development of what key individuals have identified as a new sub-discipline in crime studies. It would be a very unfortunate development if crime scientists were to see themselves as on the other side of a dividing wall from criminology and vice-versa. If there is a nascent schism, it should be repaired, not widened, in my view. This may well need both sides to be in more sustained dialogue.
Subsequent chapters provide a series of valuable examples of the application of scientific method to a range of crime prevention and crime detection challenges. These include the challenge to policing of future technology, prison order, predictive crime-mapping, motorway service area crime, vehicle tax evasion, use of DNA in burglary detection and police crime investigation.
These are all highly important in their own right but a range of significant, sometimes surprising, points are also made.
A good example is the relative ease with which the virtues of well-controlled experimentation are dispensed with in the name of “realistic evaluation”. Another is the identification of the origins of RCT methodology solely with the natural sciences.
The originators of RCT methodology were, I believe, adamant that the difficulty of achieving validity in a social science context through uncontrolled experimentation was greater than in the natural sciences, thereby making it more, not less, necessary to adopt the highest possible methodological rigour.
It seems particularly strange that a group of authors professing “crime science” should be associating themselves with a level of scientific rigour that many practising criminological evaluators would question.
A section of the book argues that cost-benefit analysis indicates the potential virtue of switching resources from other sectors of public spending to crime –reduction, particularly situational crime prevention.
Whilst I would agree that we do have to accept the social benefit case for considering whether we might prefer spending money on safer living to spending it on relatively unproductive health investments. However, we would equally need to consider whether the need for situational crime prevention measures could be reduced through the transfer of health resources from clinical treatment to preventative health education or aggressive mental health outreach services.
So, while it is vital that books such as this should be written and widely read, I hope that it provides a vehicle for uniting rather than dividing up what is still a relatively small world of criminology. Criminology must be scientific and crime must be tackled scientifically.
Paul Kiff
University of East London
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Inside the Minds of Mass Murderers: Why They Kill.
Katherine Ramsland Praeger 2005
Consideration of the title of this book alone reveals that it is not likely to be a particularly “scholarly” work. However, it is only fair to read the book in the spirit in which it is intended: as relatively sophisticated “true crime”. Taken on these terms, Inside the Minds of Mass Murderers is a fairly enjoyable read, as long as moral questions about violence and killing as entertainment are set aside. The book provides an overview of the phenomenon of mass murder from the mid-twentieth century until today, with a concentration upon mainly American cases. Ramsland adopts a case study approach, with different types of mass murder being roughly grouped into chapters such as “Family Massacre” and “Visionary Mass Murder”. There is a certain fascination inherent in reading about cult mass suicide, the curiously high numbers of work place killings that have taken place in the US postal service, and the Charles Manson murders all in one volume.
Ramsland teaches forensic psychology, and she includes some interesting material on the evolution of understandings of the “psychopath” and the American courts’ interpretations of a diagnosis of “paranoid schizophrenia” in relation to the insanity defence. However, her focus on the “minds” of mass murderers does not address many important questions, such as why these types of killings have increased, particularly in the US, and why the numbers of school shootings by teenagers in rural areas of America intensified during the 1990s. Social, economic and cultural explanations are not considered.
The book has a wide-ranging focus, encompassing those who have killed intimates or work colleagues, cult leaders who may have sanctioned the murder of some of their followers, terrorists, and state killings such as the holocaust and the Mai Lai massacre. This catch-all approach is a weakness, as it is not clear what, if anything, connects these vastly different types of murder with one another. State killings in particular do not belong in a work largely devoted to murders by individuals and pairs. The political and historical contexts of state killings are not explored, and the complexity of these events is skated over. Similarly, an analysis of terrorism belongs elsewhere.
Inside the Minds of Mass Murderers is not an “academic” text, but if not taken too seriously, could be read as a guilty pleasure for relaxation if certain sections are skipped.
Lizzie Seal
School for Policy Studies
University of Bristol
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Cultural Criminology Unleashed.
Edited by Jeff Ferrell, Keith Hayward, Wayne Morrison and Mike Presdee Glasshouse Press 2005
Cultural criminology is a relatively recent phenomenon and as such its intellectual boundaries, if there are to be any, have yet to be established. The first major work on the subject was Ferrell and Sanders’ Cultural Criminology in which they collected together works by some of its most influential proponents. This process has been continued in Cultural Criminology Unleashed, another edited collection covering subjects as diverse as the politics of fear providing the intellectual underpinnings for the post-9/11 USA Patriot Act (Mark Hamm); a comparison between coverage of the USA’s ‘war on drugs’ and the lack of attention paid to those killed in car accidents, examining in particular roadside shrines constructed by the victims families (Jeff Ferrell); the media and political containment of Marilyn Manson, ‘Goth’ youth and others (Stephen Muzzatti); the interconnections between crime, culture and community in the new and old media (Chris Greer); representations of crime and crime control in contemporary urban Japan (Mark Fenwick); and the case for a cultural criminological approach to drug and alcohol research (Fiona Measham).
The book is divided into six sections. The first, ‘Theorising Crime, Culture and Criminology’, as suggested by the title, looks at the theoretical connections between culture and crime exploring subjects such as the use of biographical narrative, structural phenomenology (this from a Seattle police officer) and style. It begins with a critique of mainstream criminological enterprise and a
message of support for cultural criminology, ‘Voodoo Criminology and the Numbers Game’, by Jock Young. Provocative and eloquent as ever, Young emphasises the importance of the development of the discipline to encompass, “a theoretical position which can enter into the real world of existential joy, fear, false certainty and doubt; which can seek to understand the sub cultural projects of people in a world riven with inequalities of wealth and uncertainties of identity.” He asserts that “our problems will not be solved by a fake scientificity but by a critical ethnography honed to the potentialities of human creativity and meaning” (p 26).
This description of the essence of cultural criminology sets the scene for the rest of the book which provides an exhilarating journey through this emerging discipline. The remaining sections address various aspects such as political and geographical borders, media constructions, urban spaces, the application of cultural criminology to research and questions of agency and control.
The book grew from the contributions made to the First International Conference on Cultural Criminology in London 2003, which I was fortunate enough to attend. During that
conference there was a real sense of excitement, innovation and even passion, which I have not encountered before or since. Cultural Criminology Unleashed encapsulates this mood and builds on it with some fascinating theoretical analysis as well as many illustrations of the diverse subjects that come under the cultural criminological umbrella. It really is, as it claims, “pourin’ off every page.”
Diana Bretherick
Institute of Criminal Justice Studies
University of Portsmouth
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Surviving Russian Prisons: Punishment, economy and politics in transition.
Laura Piacentini Willan Publishing 2004
Following the politically traumatic events of 1991, Russia stands at a turbulent point in its history. Piacentini’s (2004) book, Surviving Russian Prisons, offers a reading of the prison in this society in transition. Culturally and historically the prison played a major role in Soviet life. It is the disjuncture between gulag, or the remains of the gulag, and contemporary conditions that informs much of the book.
In essence, the book is concerned with the tensions between a series of dichotomous positions engendered by Russia’s current status. Piacentini explores how Western penal expertise has come to be imposed on the Russian penal system. This is a one-way transfer of knowledge that privileges the ‘expert’ over the local. The author goes onto acknowledge the irony that nations whose penal systems themselves are hardly beyond reproach should offer advice. As Piacentini puts it, the emphasis on human rights and the adoption of Western-style KPIs “has destabilised local penal sensibilities while introducing managerialist approaches to penal performance” (p.124). This is not to deny the importance that Piacentini attaches to human rights, but merely to emphasise the author’s insistence on the necessity to marry these with local practice. The difficulty in achieving this is exacerbated by large geographical differences in thinking and practice. One of Piacentini’s research sites was some 3000km east of Moscow, leading a research participant to question the applicability of European models when they did not consider themselves to be European.
A key practice that the author points to as embodying the problems facing the post-Soviet prison system being brought ‘into line’ with Western standards is prison labour. Prison labour had a particular importance for Soviet Russia and continues to have a cultural resonance. Presently, in some instances, Russian prisons must barter with the local community so as to provide basic amenities for their inmates. Prisoners have their essential requirements met whilst also fostering close relationships with the local community. Yet, this necessitates prison labour. Is then prison labour a necessary evil or something beneficial? This is the invidious position facing Russian prison officials.
Conducting the research in Russia brought with it its own unique challenges. What initially appears as a self-congratulatory sub-heading in a methodology section (“Beyond the call of duty: living ‘inside’ prisons”) is revealed as an intriguing piece on ethnographic survival. Few in the sphere of prison ethnography have had to deal with enforced poetry readings or tick bites. I digress. The ethnographic snapshots of the two research settings alone ensure that this book is required reading for those interested in prisons or conducting research in them.
This is a hugely accomplished piece of scholarship. The author’s evident impassioned engagement with the question of the post-Soviet penal system informs each element of the book. Piacentini describes the topic as “complex, but also exciting” (p.117). Much the same could be said of this book.
Michael Fiddler
Keele University
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Ironies of Punishment.
Welch, M Sage Publications 2005
In the introduction to Ironies of Punishment, Welch quotes the New York Governor George E. Pataki as stating that the “root causes of crime are the criminals who engage in it” (p.2). Likewise, Welch cites an anonymous “high-ranking corrections official” as proposing “zero tolerance means zero thinking” (p.5). Welch’s points of departure then are the so-called ironies of imprisonment that are constitutive of and constituted by the waves of popular punitiveness and anti-intellectualism confronting ‘radical’ criminologists. Simply stated, the ironies of the title are those that turn the criminal justice system upon the poor and neglected, the very people whom it should be protecting. By examining them, Welch hopes to expose “their root causes manifesting in social, political, economic& racial inequality” (p.xiii).
This book is a substantially revised edition of Welch’s earlier Punishment in America. It consists of a collection of essays that explore the ‘ironies of imprisonment’ in a wide array of fields, ranging from health care in prisons to privatisation via the wars on drugs and terror. This is indeed a diverse set of topics, but this serves to dilute the central narrative thrust as outlined in the introduction. The book works much better as a collection of introductory essays that one can dip in and out of. Ironies of Imprisonment would sit comfortably alongside similar texts on an undergraduate course exploring the sociology of imprisonment. That said, it lacks the coherence or depth of other books that explore the field. Indeed, its arguments have been stated more cogently elsewhere (see, for example, the various work of authors such as Wacquant, Christie, Garland and Young).
This is not intended to be an ill-tempered dismantling of Welch’s book. It is an evidently impassioned and often highly readable text. It brings together some startling statistics and makes some powerful statements (in this respect I was reminded of Currie’s Crime and Punishment in America). It also introduced me to the work of a number of American researchers I had not been familiar with. Its post 9/11 perspective also allows Welch to comment on key and on-going changes to Western criminal justice systems. However, the book is simply hampered by its brevity. Arguments that require attention are barely addressed. The legitimacy of private prisons merits two sides at best. In contrast, a discussion of ‘wilding’ and the moral panic surrounding the term spills over several pages yet is poorly integrated into the overall argument.
This is a fine book when taken as a collection of essays that can be read alongside a number of other texts. Unfortunately, while the central argument is valid and important, the diversity of the book as a whole fails to convince.
Michael Fiddler
Keele University
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Handbook of Transnational Crime& Justice.
Edited by Philip Reichel
Thousand Oaks 2005
The last 12 months have seen the publication of three ambitious collections dealing with various aspects of Transnational crime and justice: Fijnaut and Paoli (2004); Sheptycki and Wardak (2005) (reviewed by Francis Pakes in BSC Newsletter 58) and this collection edited by Philip Reichel. Each will have its advocates but together they set an extremely solid baseline for studies in the transnational and organised crime area that only a year ago was not at all well represented in current criminology. Those with an interest in this area should ensure they have access to all three.
Reichel’s Handbook primary aim is to provide a collection of essays on the increasingly transnational nature of crime and the cooperative international responses to it that will be a reference book for scholars and students. Moreover it has the stated aim of attempting to be useful to practitioners and to include practical and applied information. In doing this, it aims to have contributions from all over the world.
This is an ambitious target, but broadly speaking the Handbook achieves this:
Part I sets the scene: Felsen and Kalaitzidis trace the evolution of transnational crime and offer some historical examples such as slavery, piracy and opium smuggling, before summarising the changing internatyional conditions and priorities since 1990. As with all the chapters in this book, its cut-off point means that the terrorist events of July 2005 and their aftermath are missed, but this will be a feature of any book attempting to cover a fast-changing area. Dammer, Reichel and He then provide an overview of comparative studies in Crime and Justice: the overview of Crime is rather a historic one and detailed discussion is left to later in the Handbook: some useful examples of Justice solutions are given, ranging widely over different social solutions in countries as far apart as Canada, Germany, China and the Middle East.
Part II consists of 9 chapters on different topics of transnational crime. Hill discusses the problem of measurement, drawing heavily on Newman (1999) and the problems of traditional crime measurement. She goes on to talk about problems of trying to measure illegal immigration: firearms, drugs, people and human parts trafficking: but few concrete ideas emerge and this is clearly an area where much remains to be done. White looks at the growth and typology of terrorism from 1945 through to the end of 2002: we can see from what we know has happened since then, how this type of analysis needs to be produced and modified on at least an annual basis.
Joyce considers how the concept of Money Laundering has had to be expanded following the growth of terrorist activity, so that it encompasses, not only how the profit of organised criminals is translated into legal activity, but how the financing of terrorism is actually carried out. Adler and Polk provide a useful reference chapter on Cultural Crime. Marsall, Robinson and Kwak discuss various aspects of Computer Crime, in a chapter challenging such well-established concepts as ‘where’; ‘when’; and ‘who’ that are associated with traditional crime measurement 7 detection.
Michalowski and Bitten try to identify the mechanisms that affect the transnational flow of Environmental Harm. They identify how both governments and NGOs have responsibilities for bringing these to the attention of the public. The phenomena discussed in this chapter spread very quickly into, and interact with, the non-criminal area: for example, a 2005 update would need to cover topics such as criminal and non-criminal inputs and reactions to the spread of avian flu from the east and the reactions to phenomena such as the 2005 Caribbean hurricane season and the Indian Ocean Tsunami.
Chawla and Pietschmann’s chapter uses trafficking of opiates, cocaine, stimulants such as amphetamine and cannabis to explain the extent and trends in drug trafficking, particularly international cooperation in disrupting production and trafficking routes. Di Nicola then considers Trafficking of Human Beings; looking at definitional problems, the organisation of such trafficking and estimates the extent of the problem. Finally, in a slightly different type of chapter in this Part, Niemann looks at war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide.
Part III looks at cross-national and international efforts to combat transnational crime: Roth’s chapter is an overview of how the police, courts and corrections systems have coordinated their efforts to combat organised crime: Joutsen explains the need for formal international instruments and discusses extradiction, mutual legal assistance, transfer of proceedings, recognition of judgements and the transfer of prisoners. These two chapters set the scene for the rest of this Part of the book.
Deflem reviews the origins of Interpol: Haberfeld and McDonald describe the working of both Interpol and Europol today and look at the experience of various International Police Task Forces. Hopfel and Angermaier explain how the enforcement of criminal law remains broadly a decentralised process, with very few exceptions. They do, however, set out in detail the exceptions: eg Nuremberg, Tokyo, Rwanda, Tribunals and give useful summaries on such organisations as the International Criminal Court: The International Court of Justice, and the European Court of Human Rights. Weiss then theorises on whether a universal standard of penal treatment is possible: although he carefully sets out the problems resulting from Guantanamo Bay, it is likely that a 2005 rewrite would need to take a different approach in the light of hardening of penal attitudes worldwide following al-Qaeda and other terrorist activities.
Part IV is a comprehensive set of essays on Regional and Special Issues although the introductory chapter could have brought out the similarities and differences much more. Shaw and Wannenburg cover the position in Africa, although because of the lack of data and research, this is somewhat impressionistic. Ward and Mabrey look at the position in Asia, although this amounts only to short essays on China (including Hong Kong), Japan, Cambodia, South Korea, and Myanmar. Von Lampe looks at the position in Europe, but concludes in a rather pessimistic way that the situation is so varied that the whole concept is almost an impossible one. Rubio and Ortiz look at the situation in Latin America: they argue how the overlap of politically motivated violence and organised crime has given Latin America an especially politicised version of organised crime. Finckenaur and Albanese look at North America by considering Cosa Nostra, Russian, Chinese, Mexican and Canadian groups involved.
The final two chapters are on the Special Topics of Youth Crime (John Winterdyck) and Capital Punishment ( David Keys). These serve as useful reference documents: eg age of criminality, Juvenile Justice Models or countries that execute people but they seem less successful as coherent chapters for this handbook. However important these issues seem, they are but two examples of the way individual countries set their own penal code, impose and carry out penalties: if these chapters are worth including, there are many other criminal justice issues that could be treated on a transnational basis: eg what about chapters on the way minorities are treated: what about victims, what about prison numbers, the way prosecution systems are diverting from courts to reduce costs, or the increase in private policing and justice.
As a handbook, this deserves to widely read and available to students and teachers: it does, however, need to updated routinely, as crime and justice react to events and to technological, socio-economic, demographic and political change. With the delays in paper publication, perhaps a web site update is the best way forward. Is any BSC members willing to volunteer?
References
Cyrille Fijnaut and Letizia Paoli, Organised Crime in Europe: Concepts, Poatterns and Control Policies in the European Union and Beyond, Springer, 2004.
Graeme Newman, 1999 Global Report on Crime and Justice. New York: Oxford University Press.
James Sheptycki and Ali Wardak, Transnational & Comparative Criminology, Glasshouse Press, 2005.
Chris Lewis
Institute of Criminal Justice Studies
University of Portsmouth
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The Russian Mafia: Private Protection in a New Market Economy.
Fredrico Varese Oxford University Publishing 2001
Varese has set himself a broad and interesting task that has already won considerable accolade.
The aim of the text is to “study the forms of protection taken during the transition from soviet planning to the market economy in Russia”. The premise for this is that property rights form an intrinsic part of market economies and in transition from a society without, to one with, the provision of protection becomes a contested commodity. This is an interesting perspective from which to guide the text.
The introductory chapter sets the scene and broader context. Despite adopting a slightly contentious view of organised crime, the chapter sets out the book’s development and origins adequately enough for the reader to draw broader contextual links. The methodology is also set out in some depth.
The book is logically organised into sections and chapters. The first section of three chapters addresses the transition into the market economy in Russia and how this impacts on property and protection. Overall, it is well written and appropriate to the broader aims of the book. The depth of analysis was generally adequate, although at times Varese did not clarify his reasoning for including particular points which was rather frustrating.
The two chapters of the second section provide an in-depth case study of a city in Russia called Perm. Varese uses this to cement previous points and draw out the key tensions in the relationship between protection, property, victims, the state and criminal groups. Varese provides excellent background material on Perm. This helps to understand the genesis of some of the key developments in Perm. One does wonder however, how close the relationship is between local history and the development of particular criminal features in a particular city or area. Varese fails to articulate this.
The three chapters of the third section focus on the Russian Mafia. Despite personally feeling that organised crime is perhaps more fluid and less organised than initially thought, therefore sitting un-easily under a single term, this section is interesting. In particular, the chapter on the Vory-y-zakone (thieves-with-a-code-of-honour) was fascinating and incredibly well researched from numerous perspectives. In essence, this was an exclusive sect of criminals who led almost monastic livelihoods. Varese draws links with modern-day criminals and makes a number of interesting parallels.
Overall, this is an interesting text. It is not aimed at the beginner, looking for an introductory text on “organised” crime in Russia, but adopts a higher level approach focusing on a convergence of specific factors. It is reasonably well written but this is occasionally let down by the author not signposting the relevance of particular points appropriately enough.
Peter Hamerton
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Roger Hopkins Burke, An Introduction to Criminological Theory.
Devon: Willan Publishing, 2005 (2 nd Ed.)
The production of textbooks in the field of theoretical criminology has become a growing industry. Often, they are a mere reproduction of a collection of lectures covering a vast amount of material squashed in a fairly small space. There are, however, books that stand out for what they have to offer when addressing theoretical matters. Hopkins Burke’s An Introduction to Criminological Theory is certainly one of these books. Amongst the myriad of textbooks on a similar subject, it stands out for the clarity of the language used, making it both accessible and interesting to undergraduate students who are the target readership.
The book is divided into four sections: the first three sections correspond, as the author points out, to three different traditions of explaining crime and criminal behaviour, namely, the rational actor model – developed during the 17 th and 18 th century and based on the notions of social contract and utilitarianism; the predestined actor model – also known as the positivist school of criminology; and the victimised actor model – based on two very distinct theoretical foundations, labelling theory and conflict theory. The last and fourth section is written as an attempt towards the integration of all the theories and traditions within criminology which have been described in the previous chapters. This is the section which I enjoyed the most, as it brings together different theoretical perspectives ‘with the intention of providing a bigger, better, all-encompassing theory’ (p234).
References to contemporary issues such as the attacks on the World Trade Centre in New York City and the Pentagon in Washington, in 2001, the Bali bombing in 2002 and terrorist attacks in Turkey in the following year are all mentioned in the concluding chapter. That chapter concentrates on the question of postmodernity and the ‘schizophrenia of crime’ which the author describes in terms of a contradictory duality between the public demand for intervention against criminality, and the fact that criminality is widespread to the virtual level of universality in contemporary society.
Each chapter concludes with a fairly detailed reading section in which the reader is invited to explore further the issues discussed, approaching the question of crime and criminal behaviour in an interdisciplinary fashion. For example, in the section on biological positivism, the reader is directed toward wider implications of biological positivism in modern society by suggesting reading Bauman’s (1989) Modernity and the Holocaust.
The footnotes – for example on the issue of cannabis being downgraded from class B to class C, and on ASBOS - are also very useful in bringing this textbook in line with the contemporary debate on crime and criminal behaviour.
Overall, this is a book that I would certainly recommend as a well written, clear and coherent introduction to criminology.
Nicoletta Policek
Division of Sociology
University of Abertay, Dundee
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Roy Coleman, Reclaiming the Streets: surveillance, social control and the city.
Cullompton, Willan Publishing. 2004.
Critically analysing the position of CCTV in British cities, Roy Coleman provides an insightful look in this book at local democratic politics and the new visions of order being realised on city streets. A case study of Liverpool is employed to illustrate concerns, which Coleman raises early in the book through a thoughtful review of the social control literature (a bit of a who’s who in social control, which students would certainly find useful).
In twenty interviews with people involved in local governance, associated security providers and regeneration partners, the definitional activities of the locally powerful are sketched out and challenged in the way that they reinforce the place of particular forms of crime within the city order. In doing so, Coleman argues, rather convincingly, against perspectives that suggest camera networks provide evidence of a wholesale shift in strategies of social control.
Evidence is presented of a significant correspondence between the nineteenth century city’s normative demarcations of urban space, and current processes of articulating objects of partnership power. This is done, not uncritically, to suggest that the capitalist city remains organised around long settled themes of exclusion. For Coleman, technology has just caught up with an age-old desire to control the city.
The author points to the absence of research surrounding the experiences of those targeted by ‘urban surveillance networks’, the homeless, the street traders and the young people of the city. He defends the role of the city as a space for entrepreneurship, for the cultural expression of the young (hooded tops and all) and for equality in the freedom of movement of its citizens and, predictably, denounces the criminalisation of these groups that accompanies the ‘new’ urban aesthetic.
What the author takes particular issue with, in the case of Liverpool, is the absolute contradiction between the city vision of the future, revealed in by-laws preventing street protest, trading and approaching street users for charitable donation, and the city’s past, which is marked by entrepreneurship and mobilisation in the face of poverty and exclusion. This, it seems, is what circumscribes the ‘soulless’ nature of the neoliberal city.
It is in his critique of neoliberalism that the book forgets its academic audience and goes straight for the throat of CCTV-obsessed policymakers. He condemns their ordering practices that govern through fear and folk devilry in the name of the reclamation and remoralisation of the city. If this moral stance doesn’t put you off the book, you may well find yourself applauding the author for it.
Coleman has produced a laudable critique of urban surveillance, which goes well beyond the purely ethical or technocratic nature of much of the literature in this area generally. The arguments are not previously unimagined, but here they are made so convincingly as to make them as new. It is a book that surprised me; it is enjoyable in its critical standpoint, informative for student, academic and policymaker alike, and worth reading for its acute observation. It is to Coleman’s credit that such a critique of the local politics of CCTV is this readable.
Lucy Michael, Keele University.
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Behind the Blue Lamp: Policing North and East London.
Peter Kennison and David Swinden
(Coppermill Press, Essex 2003)
Many older people in Britain have fond memories of good old cockney George Dixon, the central hero of a 1950’s TV programme “Dixon of Dock Green” and the associated film “The Blue Lamp”. Such memories are part of a general hankering for the good old days when the Police were apparently dear to the heart of the London community and operating in the old-fashioned comforting way.
This book builds on the images by seeking to introduce the reader in a historical way to the more everyday aspects of London policing.
It does not aim to be an academic treatise, with complex attempts to explain the developing role of the police in relation to sets of sociological theories.
It is instead a highly-researched, straight factual account, borough by borough of key buildings, facilities, features and personalities within each separate geographical police territory. The borough accounts are however well preceded by some concise descriptive material on matters such as the police command structure and rank insignia. The straight facts are also enlivened by interesting photographs and intriguing anecdotes. The facts are presented in limited chunks so that it is possible to dip in and out, according to interest.
This reviewer, brought up and educated within one part of North London learned some highly interesting titbits of information about buildings and people with whom he was familiar as a child and teenager.
Knowing the profound social impact of the Broadwater Farm incident reported in the Haringey chapter in an extremely matter of fact way, I was particularly left wondering what other deeply significant events were similarly understated in other chapters and wished that I had the time to go into some of these incidents in more depth.
In trying to encapsulate the value of this book, I came up with the view that this book is the equivalent of a portable museum, with its principal artefacts on public display but with so much obviously kept in a well indexed archive, to which an interested person could access through an extremely well-referenced exhibit guide. For anyone who would be interested in going into further depth, this book is exceptionally well referenced and it is presented in such an attractive way that there will hopefully be many who will want to embark on that journey. It also stands on its own as a good socio-historical account of the police in this part of London
Paul Kiff
University of East London
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Community Policing. National and international models and approaches.
Brogden, M and Nijhar P. (2005)
Cullompton, Devon, Willan Publishing
This is an important new book that raises questions about Community Policing demonstrating that very different models of Community Policing are available internationally. It further questions the appropriateness of Community Policing in some contexts. Drawing upon case studies it argues that Community Policing is particularly inappropriate in Northern Ireland and South Africa.
The context of this book is to critically appraise the globalizing of community-oriented policing. There are two parts to the book. The first addresses and critiques models of community policing that have developed in different geopolitical contexts; an Anglo-American perspective; the Pacific Rim (Japan, Singapore and China); the EU (France, Belgium, Italy, Spain, Netherlands and Nordic countries).
The second part of the book addresses Community Policing models in Transitional and Failed Societies. A case study describes the failure of Community Policing in South Africa and examines the experience with exporting Community Policing to other countries in Africa and South America. There is then a chapter on community policing in SE Europe and Poland under the heading of failed societies. A further chapter examines the post-Patten attempts to introduce Community Policing into Northern Ireland.
The final chapter addresses what lessons can be learned from this international comparison of the Community Policing phenomenon.
This important book will be judged first by its attempt at a global reach of societies covered and secondly its challenge to the very concept of Community Policing and the attempt to deconstruct it. The main benefit from this appraisal is that it should lead to a more critical approach to the discussion of Community Policing than has hitherto been the case and in particular to debunk that notion of Community Policing as an elixir that can solve the ills of societies.
The book is written in an accessible and entertaining style such as reflected in an anecdote of a Community Policing officer attending a Catholic School in Northern Ireland (from which such officers had previously been excluded) and giving a talk to a class about getting into cars with strangers and warning the pupils of the consequences. One pupil responded that this had happened to him, being picked up by strange people in a strange vehicle who had beat the hell out of him, ‘and it was youse!’, he said (p224)
This lightness of touch does not detract from the scholarly analysis. As a resident of Belfast Brogden describes his personal experience of how the concept of Community Policing is so easily stretched transforming it in reality to something that is quite different to its benign public face.
The book draws on a rich but appropriately focussed range of academic texts bringing together some from disparate perspectives and narratives in order to illustrate the points being made. Quite a few of the references are right up to date so this book is very timely, providing a contemporary account of a phenomenon many have taken for granted for too long.
The authors launch an early attack on Anglo-American Community Policing models in Chapter 3 by articulating what they consider to be ten myths:

  • The myth of community
  • The myth of enhanced local accountability
  • The myth of professional use of discretion in problem solving
  • The myth of universal relevance of Community Policing
  • The myths of police rhetoric – the legitimation function of local crime surveys
  • The myths of a Peelite history, of crime control and of the technological mistake
  • The myth of public support for Community Policing
  • The myth of linking informal networks of control
  • The myth of organizational change in Community Oriented Policing
  • The myth of the Anglo-American model – the failure to recognize alternatives

Studies from various countries are used to provide further evidence of the mythology of public perceptions of forms of Community Policing, e.g. the analysis of how the koban system operates in reality in Japan. Having visited kobans myself, my experience was that the koban is not the same as the image promulgated by Western criminologists and police practitioners, nor was it as dysfunctional as Brogden and Nijhar imply. Indeed arguably it might actually better fit with their concerns for more culturally sensitive forms of Community Policing.
It is clear that the authors are relying on extensive background research and where they are strong is in providing a well referenced account of the various histories influencing the development of Community policing in different countries. This point is well made by the end of Part 1.
The second part is a critique of the adoption of community policing in Transitional and Failed Societies. Here I was less persuaded but that may reflect my sheltered existence and lack of exposure to such societies. If Community Policing has been adopted uncritically and is ineffective it will not last, which begs the question, what is the alternative?
The book finishes with a look to the future. The vague concept of Community Policing, ready to be ‘cherry picked’ is laid bare. The shocking conclusion that Brogden and Nijhar come to is that, ‘it is difficult to discover where community policing has been successfully developed.’ (p228). They acknowledge that the research evidence varies in quality with Skogan’s detailed analysis in Chicago receiving favourable mention. Much of the research base is patchy, particularly in Transitional and Failed Societies. The damming indictment of this book is that Community Policing has been transmitted to such societies without reference to context, history or acknowledging its warts. Community Policing needs to be much more sensitive to indigenous customary codes and practices.
In the final chapter there is an absolutely brilliant small section that seemed to nicely illustrate where the authors are coming from. It would have been good if they could have unpacked this linkage in more detail in the book – perhaps it is the theme of their next book:
‘Liang’s (1992) trenchant critique of the equation between the development of state policing and notions of social progress are well known…Somehow the connection between the inquisitorial policing of the criminal class of the Victorian urban rookeries, the Criminal Tribes repression in imperial India, Zero Tolerance policies in New York, and the British Anti-Social Behaviour legislation – amongst many other examples – is ignored in the view of state policing’s inexorable contribution to the development of civilized standards’ (p230)
There seemed to be a connection between the state of preparedness of communities to receive Community policing models and their effectiveness that linked the critique of the Anglo-American model with that of the exported variety. Quoting from the Clegg et al report for DFID finding that:
‘poorer communities are unable to play a significant part in community policing unless major efforts are made to provide them with the basic necessities of survival and development …expecting a reformed police force to effectively uphold rights and maintain order in a highly stratified society is unrealistic’ (p231)
Might this not equally apply to impoverished white and minority ethnic communities in the UK? If so the failure of Community Policing needs to be seen in the broader context of identifying those communities that lack the collective efficacy for Community Policing to work.
The final chapter neatly sums up this work.
‘’Community Policing’ is an oxymoron. Further, it is difficult to see how a notion of democratic policing, however well intended, can coexist with state police histories of the support for social and economic inequality.’ (p235)
This is an enlightening and stimulating book which is exciting considerable interest and will be influential for some time to come.
Tom Williamson
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Policing Key Readings (Ed) Tim Newburn (2005).
Cullompton, Devon. Willan Publishing
A choice of readings inevitably reflects personal preferences, probably by including in the selection those papers that have had the biggest personal impact. The subjectivity of this exercise is a fact acknowledged by Tim Newburn, the Editor of this volume on Policing. The readings are drawn from the discipline of criminology and attempts to draw from it a body of work that reflects that core of policing studies that students the world over are directed to read. The selection of readings is masterful but Tim extends an open invitation to all of us to contact him with suggestions of what could merit inclusion. He also acknowledges that the readings are drawn from the Anglophone world. This is significant because there is a rich history of Anglophone criminology being influenced by ideas from Francophone criminology, e.g. Foucault and it would be good to establish these connections more visibly. Perhaps there is room for an International Volume of readings to follow up this one?
The volume addresses 6 aspects of policing:

  • The Emergence and Development of the Police (8 Papers)
  • The Role and Function of the Police (8 Papers)
  • Police Culture (6 Papers)
  • Policing Strategies (10 Papers)
  • Deviance, Ethics and Control (5 Papers)
  • The Emerging pastern of Policing (8 Papers)

The Editor deftly weaves together the themes from the collected papers in an Introduction to each section amply demonstrating his own depth of knowledge and understanding of the topic. These brief introductions are valuable synopses in their own right providing insightful analysis of the issues to be addressed in each part. The various readings have been selected in a way that enables an argument to be developed and then challenged by other contributors. This will force the student and practitioners to critically analyse the issues rather than just absorb the material uncritically.
Part A provides a good discussion of the origins of policing and the various forms it has taken and continues to take as policing adapts to new threats and opportunities. This scholarly analysis provides an excellent foundation for the rest of the book going all the way from 18 th century concerns about the ‘dangerous classes’ to renewed attention to forms of ‘high’ policing. Various police reforms are addressed. Some histories of policing have been criticised for ignoring the major influence that the policing of minority communities has had on models of policing and so the section ends with a focus on the experience of minority and aboriginal peoples that will resonate with contemporary policing experience showing that some current issues have a long history.
Part B addresses the role and function of the Police recognising that the police are only one agency of social control. Comparisons of policing in different countries reveal that they have much in common and consist largely of ‘authoritative interventions’ and ‘symbolic justice’. Space is given to Manning’s argument that the police have staked out an unmanageable territory and so resort instead to the management of appearances. Hardly anything in this section addresses the function of police investigation but perhaps that might merit its own set of key readings.
Part C addresses police culture, always a fascinating subject and important for academics, policy makers and practitioners as culture mediates what and how the Police do policing. The gap between street cops and management cops remains in most police organisations. Chan writes eloquently on the theme of changing police culture, a perennial challenge for police managers and those charged with the governance of the Police. Tank Waddington challenges police culture as problematic in characteristic style.
Part D addresses Policing Strategies, which tends to focus on Problem-Solving-Police models, which more recently have been largely superseded by the concept of Community Policing. Skogan and Hartnett provide a description of four general principles of Community Policing and go on to assess its effectiveness when applied in the Chicago CAPS project and draw attention in particular to the difficulty of engaging the Hispanic community. Klockars’ paper argues that Community Policing is a romanticised version of traditional coercive models of policing and he doubts whether the objectives of Community Policing are achievable. Wilson and Kelling’s famous paper on ‘Broken Windows’ is discussed and its influence on zero tolerance models of policing. Dixon argues for new forms of policing to replace old styles. The issue of police governance is further addressed in the context of the ‘Compstat’ system of accountability developed by the New York Police Department that has quickly spread across the world of policing. In contrast Ericson and Haggerty propose that the police can be viewed as knowledge workers and sketch out a radically new police model that is still in the process of being developed but which is likely to influence the next iteration of Community Policing.
Part E addresses Police Deviance, Ethics and Crime Control. This is one of the most accessible and entertaining sections despite dealing with problematic issues such as corruption and police brutality. One gap here that I spotted was the absence of a paper addressing human rights based models of policing, especially since Peter Neyroud who has written on human rights and policing gets a mention in the Introduction to the volume. The five chapters in this section address the problem of police corruption and how it can be managed. Perhaps, one of Tim’s own Papers on this subject could have been included here? Dixon discusses how governance can be effective yet positive recognising that legal rules are necessary but not sufficient for the regulation of policing.
Part F addresses the emerging pattern of policing and provides an opportunity for some ‘blue skies’ thinking. The discussions are situated in the context of the changes being brought about by post-modern society. For Reiner, the pluralizing pressures of post-modernity are fundamentally altering the notion of the police as a single professional force employing legitimate violence. Current structures are looking anachronistic. O’Malley challenges the post-modernity thesis although there is no dispute that changes are occurring in policing. For Bayley and Shearing modern democracies have reached a watershed in their systems of crime control. This is challenged by Newburn and Jones who dispute the suggestion of a police monopoly and the pluralisation argument, which they conceptualise as ‘the formalization of secondary social control activities’. Heidensohn questions the apparent lack of influence by women and why they are not in control. The impact of powerful new information and communication technologies will grow contributing to greater levels of surveillance leading to what Marx describes as the ‘maximum surveillance society’. The increasing militarization of policing activities is traced back to the ‘War on Drugs’ and Dunlap argues that there is a problematic convergence of police and military interests. This is particularly the case with Terrorism. Jean-Paul Brodeur distinguishes between ‘High’ policing (including terrorism) and ‘low’ policing and encourages criminologists to move away from the focus (reflected in this Volume) on low policing. The conclusion reached in this section is a policing world that is increasingly transnational, pluralized and risk focussed. You can almost anticipate this statement being followed by the word, ‘Discuss’.
In summary, this is an excellent selection of readings. If you spot a gap do contact Tim. I would like to echo a comment by Tank Waddington in an earlier book review and pay credit to Brian Willan and his team without whom this emerging corpus of knowledge might have remained an aspiration shared by academics and practitioners with an interest in the scientific study of policing.
Tom Williamson
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Combating organised crime. Best practice surveys of the Council of Europe.
Council of Europe Publishing 2004
This book is a collection of ‘current’ best practice surveys which was undertaken by individuals who have some degree of expertise in each of the relevant areas covered.
The areas covered include witness protection, reversing the burden of proof in confiscating the proceeds of crime, interception of communication and intrusive surveillance, crime analysis, cross-border co-operation, provisions on membership of criminal organisations, co-operation against trafficking in human beings and preventive legal measures.
With the structure of many written publications and the timescales involved in producing collective papers for inclusion usually being protracted, issues of best practice can rapidly become outdated. In this book, there is no finer example of this occurrence with the information being gathered over a five-year period between 1998 and 2003.
In the preface, mention is given to the Octopus group, for which the book was written and how through this group the Council of Europe hopes to disseminate examples of good practice in relation to combating organised crime.
WAKE UP STRASBOURG! If the Council of Europe is to disseminate good practice on any topic within its focus, it needs to look at more timely ways in which its commissioned research gets to the 'shop floor.' It perhaps needs to look at an electronic journal release system similar to that used by the Home Office and the British Society of Criminology.
Having looked at my area of expertise, crime analysis, it became quickly apparent that the authors had compiled an exceptionally broad-brush piece of work which involved looking at analytical issues in the United Kingdom, Belgium and the Russian Federation.
Without appearing too anecdotal it is safe to say that things have moved on a pace, especially in the United Kingdom in relation to many analytical issues which have been intrinsically driven by the introduction and the evolution of the national intelligence model (NIM) No in depth reference is made to NIM and the massive effect it is currently having in the way that law enforcement agencies drive their core business. It makes no reference whatsoever to issues of community intelligence and the immense importance of this new emerging field of analysis.
Naive suggestions for consideration are made at the end of this particular chapter which are occasionally duplicated throughout each of the other chapters and trying to adopt some of these suggestions, in either the immediate or long term, would be unachievable.
What this book is a good example of is that of bureaucracy in action, or not, as the case may be. Anyone researching bureaucracy or generally interested in the work of the likes of Albert Crozier, would immediately ask, ' how is anything achieved within a pan-European context?'
The appendix of the book gives a small insight into some of the workings of the Council of Europe and how this particular book came into being. The earliest date I could find was 1997, when issues in relation to this book were first starting to be discussed.
With the tragic events of 9/11 in the United States and more recently 7/7 in London, issues of crime are globally effective and we learn almost daily of new techniques and methods employed by criminals. If large organisations with statutory protective obligations to nations or groups of nations think that best practice can be disseminated over lengthy periods of time, then they are deluded to say the least.
The British Society of Criminology promotes the development of properly structured, methodical research which has a practical purpose in the real world and makes the communities in which we live a better place. Books such as this are untimely in publication, limited in content and need to find a better method of being exposed to practitioners working on the 'shop floor.'
Gary Birchall
Community Intelligence Analyst
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Duane L. Dobbert: Halting the Sexual Predators among us: Preventing Attack, Rape, and Lust Homicide.
Westport Connecticut: Praeger, 2004, 146 pp.
The author has apparently been a consultant for ‘hundreds of law enforcement, judicial, and corrections agencies in the United States’. The idea of the book is that he is sharing his experience not just with academics but also with parents and educators. The intention of the book is to find warning signs to look out for which might indicate that someone is liable to become a sexual predator of strangers.
The book is divided into three sections. The first and longest details ‘sexual paraphilias’. The second section deals with personality disorders. The third section relates specifically to attacks. The basic idea seems to be that a paraphilia plus a personality disorder is likely to lead to sexual predation.
The paraphilias and the personality disorders are all taken from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) (2000). There is virtually no criticism of this text and there is no reference to any other academic literature. Dobbert’s contribution is to provide illustrations for the lay person of what is meant by the relatively dry and abstract definitions in the DSM. There are at least two difficulties here.
The first is that many of the ‘paraphilias’ are actually engaged in by consenting adults and are agreed by Dobbert to be harmless in moderation. Thus, for example, a spot of bondage between consensual adults is not a paraphilia, but if it becomes obsessive ‘a diagnosis of sexual sadism may be appropriate’: ‘clinically significant distress, impairment in social relationships, behaviour forced upon any non-consenting adult or child, or legal complications are necessary to complete the diagnosis’ (p. 10). What counts as moderation is plainly a matter of judgement, as is ‘impairment’ of social relationships, and legal complications can arise because of unduly restrictive laws. Your mental disorder is my harmless self-indulgence. Thus Dobbert is very concerned about Telephone Scatologia, which he sees as leading to rapid financial ruin. On the other hand he is very relaxed about teenage boys searching through the laundry for worn female undergarments from their mothers and sisters, ‘smelling the fabric for the “scent of a woman”’ and using them for masturbation (p. 17). A similar criticism could be applied to Dobbert’s treatment of personality disorders.
The second difficulty is that when it comes to putting things together in the third part of the book he emphasises that one cannot do this in a mechanistic way: ‘stalkers do not fit into an established taxonomy’ (p. 103), persons afflicted with a sexual paraphilia may well not engage in any nonconsensual activity (p. 126). It is more that persons who commit nonconsensual sexual assault are commonly afflicted with a sexual paraphilia. For this reason it is rather a shame that he spends so much time and energy on listing sexual paraphilias. Why describe zoophilia, coprophilia, urophilia and necrophilia when there is no suggestion that these cause any harm (provided the necrophiliac finds human remains rather than creating them)?
The strongest bits of the book are where he describes particular episodes of predatory sexual crime and suggests what could have been done to avoid them or minimise the damage. It would have been better for the book to build on these at greater length and more systematically rather than creating a debatable edifice of classification.
Mark Cowling
University of Teesside.
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Hudson, K. (2005). Offending Identities. Sex offender’s perspectives on their treatment and management.
Devon: Willan
This book takes the reader on a journey in which they are asked to listen to the dialogues of 32 convicted male sex offenders in relation to how they are treated and managed within a prison and community setting.
Before commencing this journey, in section one of the book, an account is given of the increasing punitive sanctions imposed on sex offenders and the moral panic which surround this group, together with an overview of the measures in place to manage and treat sex offenders.
This is followed by a very informative account of the three sex offender programmes which were undertaken by the participants in the research, either in prison or in the community. These are, the Sex Offender Treatment Programme (SOTP), the Community Sex Offender Groupwork Programme (C-SOGP) and the Behaviour Assessment Programme (BAP).
This leads to the core element of the book, which gives the accounts of the offenders themselves. The author has interestingly set this within a social identity framework to explore how public perceptions of sex offenders affects how they manage their identities. The author divided the participants into three groups, those who deny they are sex offenders, those who justify their actions and those who accept what they have done. This enabled similarities and differences between them to be explored in the way that they attempt to preserve a more acceptable image of themselves to that portrayed in the media.
The remainder of this section allows the reader into an insight into the reasons why the men started programmes (if they were not mandatory) and why some failed to complete. The assumption that those who start treatment programmes solely due to being motivated to change is challenged with other internal and external factors being considered.
The final section of the book argues that the perception of sex offenders as a homogenous group needs to be challenged, and the public educated along these lines. The need for multi agency working is seen as essential to support those in the community to allow reintegration and thus decrease the likelihood of re-offending
This book is a must for anyone interested in this area. Instead of the usual interpretation of reconviction rates to consider the effectiveness of treatment programmes we have a sensitive, well written account from convicted sex offenders, placed within a strong theoretical framework.
On a final note I wish I could argue that I do not agree with a strand through the book that states that the reasons why people offend, and what makes them stop, is no longer important to the Government (although I would agree that the public and media probably do not care). However, in light of ever increasing prison populations and programmes being withdrawn through lack of funding, I feel the author is probably correct.
Dr Sue Thomas
Development Manager, PS Plus (Prison Service)
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Violence Workers. Police Torturers and Murderers Reconstruct Brazilian Atrocities.
By Martha K. Huggins, Mika Hartos-Fatouros and Philip G. Zimbardo
University of California Press, Berkeley,
This book is about how ordinary people become torturers and murderers.
From among the millions of psychological experiments that have been conducted and published how many can you recall that are truly important? Most of us will recall from our undergraduate studies Stanley Milgram’s famous experiments showing how readily ordinary people were to inflict pain in obedience to authority (Milgram 1974). Another truly important experiment would surely be Philip Zimbardo’s studies of students from the highly prestigious Stanford University participating as gaolers or prisoners and how the experiment had to be abandoned due to the abusive behaviour of gaolers towards their prisoners (Zimbardo 1970)
In the margins of the recent International Psychology and Law Conference in Edinburgh, some of us were discussing these experiments and concluded that they are unlikely to be repeated, as they would never get consent from University Ethics Committees. Is this one of the reasons why many of the important themes from these two experiments have lain dormant for so long? We were in danger of forgetting the capacity of ordinary people to be induced to inflict pain on others in obedience to authority and as a consequence of being given a particular role.
In her analysis of Albert Speer, who from 1942 was the second most powerful man in the Reich and Hitler’s right hand man, Gitta Sereny was struck by Speer’s ordinariness (Sereny 1995)
‘Violence Workers’ is therefore a most timely wake-up call as we enter the 21 st century. Its publication coincides with prisoners being detained at Guantanamo Naval Base, whose detention, trial and possible execution is of dubious legality. President Bush in a joint press conference in July 2003 with Prime Minister Tony Blair described these prisoners as ‘evil men’. There has been discussion in the press involving leading academic lawyers that torture should be permissible if courts issued ‘torture warrants’ and there was official oversight of its application. This of course would flout the International Declaration of Human Rights and its Conventions that under international law provide for the total prohibition on torture, and from which States cannot derogate.
The context in which States justify torture is important. The research reported in this book examined state-sponsored and state encouraged torture and assassinations during Brazil’s military government (1964-1985) and whose participants have received pardons. It is based on a small number (twenty-three) of in-depth interviews of Brazilian policemen, of which fourteen were perpetrators of torture or murder. The results are strikingly similar to previous research conducted by one of the authors into torture during the period of the Greek military dictatorship (Gibson and Haritos-Fatouros 1988).
The authors find that torture is made possible through four inter-related conditions:

  • Unchecked and arbitrary executive rule
  • Secret interrogation locations and procedures
  • Hidden identities of both interrogators and those under interrogation
  • A supportive public

Zimbardo and Milgram’s famous experiments provide the basis for asking, ‘Why and how are ordinary men transformed into state torturers and murderers?’ In Greece there was a clear system of selection of recruits from uneducated, rural backgrounds who were then attached to elite units, given special privileges and status as they were gradually exposed to, and began participating in, torture and human rights abuses. This process accords with Zimbardo’s explanation of deindividuation. In Brazil the process was less systematic but pervasive. Deindividuation started with degrading treatment of police and military recruits, which was followed up with training sessions in torture. An account is given of a young woman who was tortured and raped in such a ‘training’ exercise. (There is a sub-theme which is not explored about the nurses and doctors who advised torturers in their grisly labours. See also Medicine Betrayed. The Participation of Doctors in Human Rights Abuses. This is a report by a Working Party of the British Medical Association, published in 1992).
No evidence points to either the Greek or Brazilian torturers having been sadistic or mentally unbalanced.
The chilling conclusion that these authors reach is that ‘anyone could become a torturer or executioner under a set of well-known conditions.’ It can happen anywhere. It is happening now. It is most likely to be happening where, ‘A national rhetoric projects the widespread presence of secretive enemies to justify repressive actions by government for the good of law-abiding citizens; it establishes the sense of a state under siege.’
As an explanation of the social psychology of torture this book should be required reading for all criminologists, psychologists and academics from related disciplines. As a wake up call for all of us coming to terms with a post September 11 th world, it demands to be read and its lessons about the ‘ordinariness’ of torture and torturers more widely understood. The last fifty years has seen the gradual acceptance by governments of international standards to protect human rights. Nations jettison these standards at their peril. Sadly, where and when this happens there will no doubt be a ready supply of ‘ordinary’ people faced with a choice between good and evil will choose the latter and be willing to support the state as torturers and executioners.
References:
British Medical Association (1992) Medicine Betrayed. The Participation of Doctors in Human Rights Abuses. A Report of a Working Party. London: Zed Books.
Gibson, Janice and Mika Haritos-Fatouros (1988) The official torturer: A learning model for obedience to an authority of violence. Journal of applied Social Psychology 18, pp 1107-1120
Milgram, S. (1974) Obedience to authority. New York: Harper & Row.
Sereny, Gitta (1995) Albert Speer: His Battle with Truth. London: Picador.
Zimbardo, P.G. (1970) ‘The human choice: Individuation, reason, and order versus deindividuation, impulse and chaos’ In 1969 Nebraska symposium on motivation, edited by W.J. Arnold and D. Levine, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
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John Muncie and David Wilson (eds.), Student Handbook of Criminal Justice and Criminology. [Back to top]
Cavendish, 2004
There is no shortage of undergraduate criminology texts, and it is not always easy to judge which is most useful. This collection has a number of virtues which may commend it.
First of all, brevity. It packs 19 chapters into just over 300 pages. Secondly, most of the contributions are thought-provoking and reasonably up-to-date. The publishers advertise the book as “written by some of the leading criminologists in the country”, and this is true. The contributors seem to have been allowed to decide for themselves what was important about the topics covered, and this has paid off. Some chapters are idiosyncratic, and some may be a little difficult for an undergraduate audience, but they almost all have the air of sharing the thinking of people who are on top of their subjects and writing on the basis of substantial experience.
Although the book’s bland title does not reflect the fact, this is a book of critical thinking on contemporary criminology. The focus is also more applied than in some other similar texts. The chapters are generally clear and concise, and most will be useful to undergraduates new to the subject. Some are written at a more challenging level, such as Gemma Buckland and Emma Wincup on research or Sandra Walklate on gender, crime and justice, and could well be recommended to PhD students.
Conventional wisdom is appropriately challenged: for example, Gordon Hughes’ chapter encourages its readers to challenge any ‘quick fix’ solutions to the question ‘What works?’ Joe Sim subtly encourages readers to see the merits of the abolitionist position (although John Muncie’s introduction perhaps overstates what it is that abolitionists mostly want to abolish). As in any collection of this type, there are some idiosyncrasies (for example, this reader wasn’t very taken by Gerry Johnstone’s call for a ‘third way’ compromising between different responses to the challenges of restorative justice). However, it manages to be more than an introductory text, and to allow its contributors to chase some intellectual hares without endangering students’ ability to learn from the main points made.
The first chapter (a very neat summary of some of the main issues in contemporary criminology by John Muncie) is available on the web at: www.cavendishpublishing.com and there are seminar or discussion topics at the end of each chapter, along with brief lists of recommended reading.
It may have entered a crowded field, but this book seems likely to be a winner.
Brian Williams
De Montfort University
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Thomas Mathiesen (2004) Silently Silenced: Essays on the Creation of Acquiescence in Modern Society.
Winchester: Waterside Press.
Silently Silenced examines the largely unseen and hardly noticeable ‘silencing processes’ that are at work in everyday life. The book contains a collection of essays on the theme of silent and unnoticed political silencing which were largely written between 1977-1978 and previously published in Norway, Germany and Sweden. However as Mathiesen admits the final manuscript, which he translated into English in 1981, sat unpublished in a drawer up until now whilst other projects distracted him.
Interestingly the significance of this work from the late 1970s seems to have increased in relevance over time. The theme of how people are brought to silence, especially political silence, seems to be a process that penetrates social life in the Western world. It appears we exist in time where society is structured in such a way that it silently makes the public fall into silence, keep quiet, hold back criticism, beware of protest, be acquiescent and strategic.
However this book does not deny the existence and expansion of types of repression, which are ‘loud’, visible and physical. For example the ‘war against terrorism’ that gained new impetus following 11 September 2001 has been loud. Furthermore it does not deny that protest and criticism does not occur as illustrated by the loud international protests about the onset of the war in Iraq in 2003.
However the presence of the loud does not detract from the silent methods of silencing people. Hidden in the structure of prison systems and the police across the West are various forms of silent and quiet structural forces in operation that silence criticism and any protests against expansionist policy. Consequently it is suggested that silent ways of silencing often interact with, and are used in defence of, loud and noisy ones.
Of particular interest are the two new essay additions (Chapters 8 and 9) to the text. Although short these essays add a two fold depth by arguing: the double process of being silently silenced through Panopticon and Synopticon, which reveal aspects of both 1984 and Brave New World at the same time and also a potential route of breaking free from the equally vicious spiral of silence.
Once again Mathiesen presents a text of both relevance and significance to the scholarly world on a topic that has largely evaded discussion up to the present time. This thought-provoking work will be useful to anyone interested in democracy and processes of government and the basic rights of citizens in relation to the state.
Ruth Penfold-Mounce
Centre for Criminal Justice Studies
Department of Law
University of Leeds
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Steve Rolles, Danny Kushlick and Mike Jay, After the War on Drugs. Options for Control.
A Report by Transform Drug Policy Foundation, 2004
Transform Drug Policy Foundation is an organisation whose objective is to minimise drug-related harm to communities, by advocating a more humane and fair system which regulates and controls drugs at national and international level.
The Report, published in 2004, After the War on Drugs. Options for Control, is a summary of Transform’s campaigning for drug policy reform. The main aim of this publication is to keep alive the debate in relation to prohibition which has proved, as the authors argue, to be an unequivocal failure: nowadays drugs are cheaper and more available than ever before, with the consequence that global levels of drug use and misuse have risen persistently.
The authors suggest that what is needed is an effective drug policy built upon the concept of regulation which comes from a different set of values and principles to prohibition. A regulatory paradigm is needed, which accepts the reality of drug use amongst consenting adults and emphasises individual rights and responsibilities and a more pragmatic harm minimisation. The prohibitionist paradigm, the authors claim, is based upon criminal justice measures that enforce the judgement that all illegal drug use is morally unacceptable. The dissonance between these approaches is illogical and untenable.
Clearly, tackling the issue of drugs in less than 50 pages is a very ambitious task. However, adopting jargon-free language and a non judgemental and non moralistic approach, the authors succeed in addressing the harms caused by prohibition. In particular, they identify five policy related harms which include the creation of crime at all levels; a crises in the criminal justice and prison system – the UK being now the leading per capita incarcerator in the European Union; harm maximisation for drug users – the UK has the highest level of drugs related deaths in Europe; political and economic social instability in drug producer and transit countries and finally, mass criminalisation and the subsequent undermining of human rights.
The Report concludes with a very useful time line for reform both in terms of global and UK policy which ranges from 1998 to 2018. The authors also provide a brief description of drug policy reform around the world which, although fairly informative, does not always offer a clear reference to the local and international current legislation.
Finally, this Report, by suggesting a roadmap which could influence more progressive reform, makes a valuable contribution to the current debate around drug policy reform. It is therefore a useful tool for both students and scholars who are interested in minimising drug-related harm to individuals.
Nicoletta Policek
Division of Sociology
University of Abertay, Dundee
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Transnational and Comparative Criminology.
Edited by J. Sheptycki and A. Wardak. London: Glasshouse Press, 2005
This is an edited collection with ambition as it addresses both transnational and comparative criminology. The emphasis on transnational aspects in conjunction with comparative criminology is timely. Criminology is increasingly about how transnational and global forces shape criminal justice arrangements, rather than how systems, operating in isolation, compare. This book certainly recognises that.
To its credit, this book manages to do justice to both the comparative as well as the transnational component. One of Sheptycki’s recurrent points, one that he drives home very well is that comparative criminology is hardly ever truly ‘global’ but usually dominated by either English-language, or European comparisons. This book certainly attempts to do better than that, with area studies from elsewhere and also by focusing on global issues of crime and crime control. The volume consists of four parts, with Part 1 ‘Comparative Criminology’ and Part 2 ‘Area Studies’ predominantly comparative in nature. Parts 3 ‘Transnational crime issues’ and 4 ‘Transnational control responses’ provide the other side of the coin.
In Part 1 Sheptycki’s chapter on relativism is a good read, historically informed, with an interesting discussion on relativism in relation to issues in Kenya and Thailand. I did find the area studies in Part 2 of particular interest. They include studies of places often neglected in mainstream criminology, including China, Saudi Arabia and Singapore. Particularly Jones’s chapter on China and Ganapathy’s on Singapore are detailed, sharply analytic and highly readable. To me these chapters constitute the backbone of the book.
The transnational part of the book starts off strongly as well. Adam Edwards can of course be trusted to provide a compelling overview of transnational organised crime. Hazel Croall’s contribution on transnational white collar crime is equally useful. To me they are the highlights of Part 3, which altogether should arouse or enhance the reader’s interest in transnational crime. Part 4, in contrast, is somewhat slender. It consists of two chapters, one by Jennifer Wood and Michael Kempa on policing whereas Paul Norman’s has an emphasis on EU policing post-9/11. Without wanting to dismiss either, both chapters hardly suffice as justification for a separate Part 4. Other areas might have been included; for example, I would have welcomed chapters on International Criminal Tribunals, genocide, and/or internationalized criminal courts, such as the ones in Sierra Leone or East Timor. These represent pertinent developments with which criminology is insufficiently concerned.
Having said that, it is unfair to emphasise what the book does not offer, as there is plenty that it does provide. Janet Chan’s chapter ‘Globalisation, reflexivity and the practice of criminology’ is a valuable one. It looks at globalisation and seeks to re-establish the role of criminology in light of it. Instructive and thought-provoking stuff.
Scholars with a comparative outlook will no doubt find their way to this volume. Those who do not see transnational or comparative work as their core business are still advised to read it. It might just serve as an eye opener.
Francis Pakes
Institute for Criminal Justice Studies
University of Portsmouth
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Sex Crime: Sex Offending and Society (2nd Ed).
Terry Thomas
Thomas has written a complete, thorough and relevant text. The task set is large – to consider the issue of sex offending and its ongoing narrative with society. This is a complex area interwoven into numerous fields, thus requiring a multi-disciplinary approach.
Overall, Thomas’s analysis of policy development is appropriately contextualised, broad and accurate. However, such breadth prevents a deeper analysis and Thomas is often left with too much to show and insufficient time to do it in. Whilst this is a criticism, students and those new to the topic would undoubtedly find this overview useful. Indeed, this was my experience with Thomas’s first edition some years ago.
The chapters are logically ordered throughout. The context is set in the first two chapters and this provides the reader with a springboard from which to consider more specific aspects of this topic.
Perhaps the greatest strength of chapter 3 (Social Responses: A Historical Perspective) is that Thomas links his analysis to broader developments such as the Industrial Revolution, increased legislative activity, social trends and criminological developments. Inevitably, this results in less time being spent on each area. The linkage of themes to contemporary developments is clear and this is an eminently valuable chapter.
Chapter 4 considers the turbulent history of policing sex offenders and highlights the compromises and moral dilemmas that arise in policing this area. The problem, essentially, is that no legislative programme can ever adequately and completely address all eventualities that occur whilst maintaining a balance of human rights and not criminalising unnecessarily. Again, Thomas links wider developments, for example, the capture of DNA and international policing, specifically to this area.
Chapter 5 provides a sequential guide to the court process and the difficult issues that arise at each juncture. For example, potential difficulties with children’s evidence are considered, and more crucially, the alleged permeation of male attitudes into court procedure and outcome is considered. Chapter 6 considers options post-trial, developments in the Probation Service, sentencing, treatment programmes, and, recent legislative activity. All are covered very well.
Chapters 7, 8 and 9 cover the thorny areas of protection, in the home, care settings and the community. All are crucial and relate directly to the issues discussed in the Introduction. For example, Thomas considers the difficulties of the state adequately protecting children in the home (a private setting), and how this has been addressed. When considering Care settings, watershed events are explained, and in particular, the disclosure of pertinent information to potential employers is covered (CRB checks). Finally, Chapter 9 (community protection) considers the difficulties associated with community notification and the sensible compromises adopted in the UK. Also, Thomas charts the increasing use of civil measures as a regulatory tool and the use of MAPPPs (Multi Agency Protection Panels).
Thomas concludes by considering concepts of Risk and Dangerousness, the importance of Personal Information, Offender’s Rights and the international nature of this issue. These are adequate categories within which to consider the key points made and it allows readers to appropriately contextualise this issue in broader academic debate.
As indicated, this is a wide-ranging and inclusive text. Inevitably, this has led to sacrifices in the depth and length of analysis. Thomas is an excellent guide through the various policies and developments, and lets the debates speak for themselves. Perhaps there could have been better signposting to key references, but nonetheless, this is an important, timely and useful text providing a valuable overview of an inherently difficult and complex area. I recommend it highly.
Peter Hamerton
University of East London
See, for example, Sherman, L. et al. Preventing Crime, What works, What doesn’t, what’s promising, University of Maryland, 1997. Goldblatt, P. and Lewis, C (eds) Reducing offending: an assessment of research evidence on ways of dealing with offending behaviour: Home Office Research Series No. 187, 1988 .
The Maryland Scientific Scale for evaluation originally produced by Sherman has been modified most recently by the Home Office in Harper and Chitty, 2005 The impact of corrections on re-offending: Home Office Research Series 291, 2005.